De Moderne Tijd 2019, nr. 4

De Moderne Tijd 3 (2019) 4

Rick Honings‘Der keerlen God’ op het toneel. Willem Bilderdijks treurspel Floris de Vijfde (1808) 298-323

Abstract (EN)
The ‘God of the Peasants’ on stage. Willem Bilderdijk’s tragedy Floris de Vijfde (1808).This article focuses on Willem Bilderdijk’s play Floris de Vijfde (Floris V), which he wrote in 1808 for King Louis Napoleon. This play is studied form different perspectives in order to get a complete picture of the content, context, function and reception of this work. It offers new biographical information on Bilderdijk’s life in the context of the Kingdom of Holland and focuses on Bilderdijk’s ideas on theatre in relation to Floris de Vijfde and on his ideas about national history. Furthermore, attention is paid to the political context in which the piece was written and to the political function that it fulfilled. Finally, this article presents an extensive overview of the reception and nachleben of the play in the second half of the nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth century.
Ron de JongHooggespannen verwachtingen. Verkiezingen en de grondwetsherziening van 1848 324-337

Abstract (EN)
Great expectations. Elections and the consitutional reform of 1848.This article explores the causes of the low turnout at the Dutch elections in the years following the constitutional reform of 1848. The liberal reformers had hoped for an increased participation of Dutch voters after the introduction of direct suffrage, but were soon to be disappointed when after a promising start, the turnout dropped well below fifty percent. Drawing on Pierre Rosanvallon’s notions on political citizenship, this article tries to explain the low turnout.
Jan Drentje en Remieg AertsDiscussie 336-350

  • Biografie of mythologie? Een repliek (Remieg Aerts)
  • Thorbeckes wil en de wil van de geschiedenis (Jan Drentje)
Kurt BertelsPak van SjaalmanGevonden: ’s werelds eerste saxofoonconcerto 351-359
Boekzaal der geleerde wereld 360-368

  • Nel de Mûelenaere, Belgen, zijt gij ten strijde gereed? Militarising in een neutrale natie, 1890-1914. Leuven: Universitaire Pers Leuven, 2019. (Samuël Kruizinga)
  • Evelien Jonckheere, Aandacht! Aandacht! Aandacht en verstrooiing in het Gentse Grand Théâtre, Café-concert en Variététheater,
    1880-1914
    . Leuven University Press: Leuven, 2017. (Veerle Driessen)
  • Henk te Velde en Maartje Janse, red., Organizing democracy. Reflections on the rise of political organization in the nineteenth century. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017. (Adriejan van Veen)
  • Angelie Sens, De kolonieman. Johannes van den Bosch (1780-1844). Volksverheffer in naam van de koning. Amsterdam: Uitgeverij Balans, 2019. (Rowin Jansen)
De Moderne Tijd 2019, nr. 3: Migratie en identiteit

De Moderne Tijd 3 (2019) 3: ‘Migratie en identiteit’

Van de redactieMigratie en identiteit. Ter inleiding 186-189
Anna RademakersJacobus Josephus Eeckhout. Wederwaardigheden van een Belgische schilder in Den Haag (1831-1844) 190-210

Abstract (EN)
Jacobus Josephus Eeckhout. A Belgian painter’s times in The Hague (1831-1844).In 1831, shortly after the outbreak of the Belgian Revolution, the Belgian painter Jacob Joseph Eeckhout moved from Brussels to The Hague. As a supporter of King Willem I, he no longer felt at ease in his homeland. Eeckhout remained in the Netherlands until 1843 and played an important role in the cultural life of The Hague. This article analyzes the The Hague episode in Eeckhout’s life in the light of the political developments of that time. To what extent did notions of nationality and national identity play a role in his artistic views and career?
Gertjan BroekEmigranten rond het Achterhuis van Anne Frank 211-226

Abstract (EN)
Migrants around Anne Frank’s Achterhuis.The story of Anne Frank, her family and her companions, hiding from persecution by the Nazi regime, is a well-known and – at a first glance – very Dutch one. The main divide between those in hiding and their helpers was that between being Jewish and being non-Jewish, which in those precarious times was of course the essential ‘divide’ imposed on the people of occupied Europe. But a closer look at the group of people around Anne seen from the perspective of migration and (national) identity produces different dividing lines and insights. Their life stories, converging in that one Amsterdam warehouse, reflect many aspects of early twentieth-century European history.
Caroline DrieënhuizenLeven(s) met objecten. De Europese elite van koloniaal Indonesië, haar verzamelingen en identificatie rond 1900 227-248

Abstract (EN)
Living with objects. The European elite of colonial Indonesia, its collections and identification around
1900.
Many upper-class migrants from, and to, Dutch colonial Indonesia – often travelling back and forth – collected objects. By analysing the practice of collecting and the meaning these people ascribed to those artefacts, I will provide insight into the way personal, and eventually even collective, identities were formed. The manner in which objects were collected and displayed not only reflected the self-image of their owners in colonial and Dutch society, but may also have been active influences in those processes of (self)identification. The collection of objects, and the meaning ascribed to them, reflected the unequal power relations within colonial society, and simultaneously, was possible a strategy for marginalised people (such as European women) to liberate themselves from social inequality.
Marguérite Corporaal en Tom Sintobin‘Gemeen Volk’. Zigeuners in Europese streekliteratuur 249-285

Abstract (EN)
‘Common People’. Gypsies in European regional fiction.Regional fiction is a genre in which the tension between local and national cultures tends to play an important role. This article explores the representation of a category of characters that seems to escape that binary opposition: gipsies. More specifically, it analyzes six case studies from regional literature produced in Ireland and the Low Countries to find out whether we can speak of a transnational trope. Although the representation of gipsies in the case studies are different in several respects, there are also striking similarities. The most important one is that the gipsies are not just mere outsiders posing a threat to the regional community. Rather, paradoxically, they constitute a model for that local community regarding the preservation and regeneration of its own cultural values.
Boekzaal der geleerde wereld 286-296

  • Eveline Koolhaas-Grosfeld en Marij Leenders, Tussen politiek en publiek. Politieke prenten uit een opstandige tijd 1880-1919. Schiedam: Scriptum, 2019. (Paul Reef)
  • Fleur de Beaufort en Patrick van Schie, De liberale strijd voor vrouwenkiesrecht. Amsterdam: Boom, 2019. Mineke Bosch, Strijd! De vrouwenkiesrechtbeweging in Nederland, 1882-1922. Hilversum: Verloren, 2019. (Ulla Jansz)
  • Martin P. Weiss, Showcasing science. A history of Teylers Museum in the nineteenth century. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2019. (Lieske Tibbe)
De Moderne Tijd 2019, nr. 2

De Moderne Tijd 3 (2019) 2

Paul ReefKoninklijke inhuldiging ‘nieuwe stijl’? Machtsrepresentatie en betekenisverlening bij de inhuldiging van Willem III na de grondwetswijziging van 1848 98-127

Abstract (EN)
The royal inauguration’s ‘new clothes’? The representation and reception of power at the inauguration of William III after the constitutional reform of 1848.In recent years, historians have shown how royal rituals were a major site for legitimating and contesting power in Europe’s long nineteenth century. This article calls for attention to cases with a more ambiguous political meaning and function. It analyses how the Dutch King William III’s 1849 inauguration ceremony represented the new political order following the far-reaching 1848 constitutional reform. The ceremony was planned surprisingly hastily without much attention to political events and lacked symbolical value, especially compared to other countries. Although the tradition of inauguration was organized and perceived as a ritual of political transition, it ultimately had little long-term political impact.
Tessel X. DekkerDriedimensionaal nieuws. Het Nederlandsch Panopticum als concurrent van het geïllustreerde dagblad, 1882-1919 128-152

Abstract (EN)
Three-dimensional news. The Amsterdam wax museum as a competitor of the illustrated newspaper, 1882-1919.The nineteenth-century wax museum can be viewed as a contemporary mass medium that showed people scenes from the news. The Nederlandsch Panopticum was the first of its kind in the Netherlands, located in Amsterdam between 1882 and 1919. As an informative visual medium, the Panopticum had to compete with other media, like the illustrated newspaper, for the attention of the public. At the same time, the wax museum also depended on photographs published in these same papers: wax models were often, and in the course of time almost exclusively, modelled after photos. This reciprocal relationship can be seen as an example of ‘intermediality’. In the end, the wax museum lost ground, foremost, to the new mass medium of the time, cinema, which took over both as an urban attraction and as a popular visual medium.
Erica van BovenEen populaire aristocraat. Arthur van Schendel en het lezerspubliek in de jaren dertig 153-169

Abstract (EN)
A popular aristocrat. Arthur van Schendel and the reading public in the 1930s.In Dutch literary culture of the first half of the twentieth century, intellectual elite and general public were not only separate, but even opposite categories. ‘Highbrow’ and ‘middlebrow’ held polarized positions in matters of cultural hierarchy and literary taste, which led to fierce debates. Strikingly, one author was able to bridge this gap: Arthur van Schendel (1874-1946) appealed both ends of the spectrum and thus had an exceptional, connecting role in the cultural divides of the Interbelluminterwar period. This article analyses the responses to Van Schendels so-called ‘Dutch novels’ in order to find out what made Arthur van Schendel highly valued by leading professionals as well as loved by the reading audience.
Boekzaal der geleerde wereld 170-183

  • Rob Delvigne en Jan Jaap Heij, In de schaduw van Cuypers. Georg Sturm (1855-1923), monumentaal decorateur. Amersfoort: Bekking & Blitz, 2017. (Lieske Tibbe)
  • Alex Rutten, De publieke man. Dr. P.H. Ritter Jr. als cultuurbemiddelaar in het interbellum. Hilversum: Verloren, 2018. (Ward de Kock)
  • Femke Knoop, Hirsch & Cie Amsterdam (1882-1976). Haute couture op het Leidseplein. Hilversum: Verloren, 2018. (Clé Lesger)
  • Robert-Jan Wille, Mannen van de microscoop. De laboratoriumbiologie op veldtocht in Nederland en Indië, 1840-1910. Nijmegen: Vantilt, 2019. (Wessel de Cock)
  • Rob Hartmans, De revolutie die niet doorging. De tragedie van Troelstra, november 1918. Utrecht: Omniboek, 2018. (Gaard Kets)
De Moderne Tijd 2019, nr. 1

De Moderne Tijd 3 (2019) 1

Wouter Egelmeers en Joris VandendriesscheDe redacteur en het buitenland. ‘Hergebruik’ van buitenlandse historische teksten in Nederlandse periodieken, 1780-1860 2-27

Abstract (EN)
Importing texts from abroad. Editors’ reuse of foreign historical texts in Dutch periodicals, 1780-1860.This article explores the ways in which the editors of five Dutch history journals and three magazines for general circulation copied historical texts from abroad, between 1780 and 1860. By comparing original texts with reprinted versions, we show that the editors’ work involved not only ‘passive’ duplication (reprinting in full), but also more active forms of intervention, from the selection of text fragments to their translation, modification or critical review. These varied editorial practices point to a broader creative process through which historical knowledge was tailored to an emerging and nationally-oriented academic audience. Editors here assumed the role of mediators, gatekeepers even in the sense that their judgment determined the very choice of texts. At a time when the study of history was evolving at both the national and international level, and when the relationship between actors making up the disciplinary field was also in flux, editors thus became influential figures.
Willemijn RubergExpertise in gerechtsdossiers. De praktijk van de forensische psychiatrie in Nederland, 1811-1930 28-50

Abstract (EN)
Expertise in case files. The practice of forensic psychiatry in the Netherlands, 1811-1930.Research on the history of Dutch forensic psychiatry has hardly taken into account how psychiatrists functioned in practice. This article, based on 485 court cases of (child)murder, rape and arson, provides an inventory of the role of psychiatrists in the courtroom. It distinguishes between three regimes of knowledge: a first regime in the first half of the nineteenth century, when there is much overlap between lay and expert knowledge on the mind; the second from ca. 1880, when increasingly reference is made to scientific concepts and reports became standardized; and a third regime around 1920, when an emphasis on scientific methods found its way into the reports. An analysis of verdicts shows that the judges often agreed with the expert reports. The relationship between the judges and psychiatrists can be qualified as one in which judges accorded room for experts, who, however, remained subservient to the judiciary.
Koos-jan de JagerWare godsdienstzin en strenge moraliteit 51-75

Abstract (EN)
True religion and stern morality. A thematic-historical analysis of the sermons of Chief Rabbi Tobias Tal (1847-1898).The process of integration of the Jewish community in modern Dutch society was accompanied by a change of Jewish homiletics in both content and form. This article presents the case of the Dutch Chief Rabbi Tobias Tal with the aim of showing how Jewish homiletics changed in the second half of the nineteenthcentury. Based on an analysis of his sermons, this article argues that Tal successfullycombined liberal-protestant ideals and homiletical forms with old Jewish thoughts.
Willem BantNederland door Colombiaanse ogen. De roman Una holandesa en América (1888) van Soledad Acosta de Samper 76-95

Abstract (EN)
The Netherlands through Colombian eyes. The novel Una holandesa en América (1888) by Soledad Acosta de Samper.In 1888, Soledad Acosta de Samper, a well-known writer and journalist in Colombia’scapital Bogotá, published the novel Una holandesa en América. This article presents an imagological analysis of how the Dutch and the Netherlands are representedin her novel, and discusses Acosta’s possible intentions in writing thisbook as well as her reasons for choosing a Dutch protagonist. It argues that the images of the Dutch were meant to serve as examples for Acosta’s Colombian audiencein a period in which the country was still engaged in nation building after gaining independence from Spain in 1819.


De Moderne Tijd 2019-34 Mens en dier

De Moderne Tijd 2 (2018) 3-4: ‘Mens en dier’

Rick HoningsVriendelijke huisgezellen of ‘ingevleeschde’ duivels. Willem Bilderdijk en de dieren 197-225

Abstract (EN)
Friendly companions or ‘corroded’ devils. Willem Bilderdijk and the animals.In 1817 the Dutch poet Willem Bilderdijk published De dieren (The animals), one of his shortest but less studied didactic poems. In this work he presented a curious view on animals and their origins. With this article, I would like to contribute to the field of animal studies, by analyzing Bilderdijk’s ideas on and his contacts with animals. The first part of this article presents a biographical overview of Bilderdijk’s association with animals on the basis of available (auto)biographical texts. In the second part his didactic poem is analysed. What parallels can be drawn between both perspectives?
Lucie SedláčkováOok de vis moet duur betalen. De representatie van dieren en het vegetarisme in het werk van Herman Heijermans en andere sociaal bewogen auteurs van het fin de siècle 226-247

Abstract (EN)
The fish have to pay dearly as well. The representations of animals and vegetarianism in the works of Herman Heijermans
and other socially engaged writers of the fin de siècle.
At the end of the nineteenth century, the perception of animals changed significantly due to the theory of evolution and other new ideas, which also affected a number of Dutch socialist-leaning writers. Utilizing the framework of literary animal studies, this article investigates how animals were represented in their works. Most of the examined writers present animals as sentient beings, which is also reflected by their speaking out in favour of vegetarianism. Herman Heijermans takes a more ambivalent position: some of his writings show the possibility of animal agency, whereas in others, animals are subordinate to people’s needs and are objectified.
Hanneke RonnesDe subversieve huiskat. Kunstenaars en poezen in Nederland, 1885-1910 248-266

Abstract (EN)
A new kind of love for the cat. The subversive, domestic cat of Dutch artists, 1885-1910.The nineteenth century is often hallmarked as the epoch of the birth of the pet. The life of cats in the Netherlands improved especially thanks to two groups: a bourgeois and noble elite embracing the cat in imitation of English peers, and (poor) artists who looked particularly towards France where authors and painters such as Baudelaire and Manet had adopted the cat as their alter ego. In this article Dutch artists (especially the Tachtigers or Movement of Eighty) take centre stage. They did not uncritically copy French examples but modelled their own cats, both visually and literarily.
Ilja NieuwlandDe ambiguïteit van de dinosaurus. Zeeslangen, Iguanodons en waarom Brussel geen Diplodocus kreeg 287-311

Abstract (EN)
The Dinosaur’s ambiguity. Sea snakes, Iguanodons and why Brussels did not receive its Diplodocus.In the opening years of the twentieth century, the Scottish magnate Andrew Carnegie
used the donation of plaster casts of the dinosaur Diplodocus as a means to influence European heads of state in favor of his scheme for conflict arbitration. This contribution examines the way in which these casts became a border object between the worlds of science, high and popular culture, and politics, by looking at the history of the public assimilation of dinosaurs. Specifically, it focuses on an earlier example of such donations: the Iguanodons which were given away by the Belgian state and the Belgian king Leopold ii personally, after 1890. These developments collided when Carnegie’s donation of a Diplodocus was cancelled after
Leopold’s reputation began to suffer when details of the Congolese genocide became known to the public. This illustrates that for Carnegie, despite the cultural and scientific appeal of his donations, politics remained at the center of his campaign.
Irena KozmanováKeizer Wilhelm II als wapen in debatten over hondenfokkerij. Voor de bureaucratie werd de keizer irrelevant 312-325

Abstract (EN)
Emperor Wilhelm II as dog owner. Instrumentalisation of the monarchy in dog breeding debates.Nineteenth century European rulers could not consider hunting or dog ownership a private choice. Regarding the role dog breeding had started to play in society, every decision made by the vips of that time was perceived as a political indication; the contemporary public discussed the choices and commented on them.
Various groups and individuals even used them as argument to support their own claims. The article shows on two cases – firstly, the exploitation of Wilhelm II to the advantage of the dachshund lobby and secondly, a conflict between a hunting dog club and the ministry of agriculture – that the Emperor, long before 1918, was
losing credit among influential parts of the society, based on new views on nature and animal treatment. Wilhelm’s hunting behaviour was perceived as obsolete and neither the use of the imperial authority as argument aimed at substantiating one’s claims could persuade the state bureaucracy that already oriented itself on scientific and transparent dog breeding policy.
Peter KoolmeesHet doden van dieren in Nederland, 1860-1940. Een onbehaaglijk onderdeel van de mens-dierrelatie 326-347

Abstract (EN)
The killing of animals in the Netherlands, 1860-1940. A inconvenient part of the human-animal relationship.This article explores the rise of the animal protection movement and its propaganda to improve the humane killing of animals in the Netherlands. From 1880 onwards, veterinarians became advisors of animal protection societies because they were considered objective judges with scientific knowledge of animal physiology.
Between 1880 and 1922 cruelty to animals decreased significantly by the development and introduction of asphyxiation cages for pets and stunning equipment for slaughter animals. Although criticized, ritual slaughter remained legal. The debate on killing methods for animals with the tensions between scientific knowledge and emotions has been with us for one and a half centuries and continues today.
Boekzaal der geleerde wereld 348-352

  • Dik van der Meulen, Jac. P. Thijsse. Natuurbeschermer en schrijver. Zeist: KNNV; Amsterdam: Heimans en Thijsse Stichting, 2018. (Marga Coesèl)
  • Catherine Wijnands, Thuis in elke tijd. Het leven van Kate Kolff (1885-1974). Zutphen: Walburg Pers, 2018. (Marieke Dwarswaard)
De Moderne Tijd 2018, nr. 2

De Moderne Tijd 2 (2018) 2

Marianne BraunVrouwen en vrede, mannen en oorlog? Wilhelmina Druckers feminisme in de Eerste Wereldoorlog
Marianne Braun 98-114

Abstract (EN)
Women and peace, men and war? Dutch radical feminist Wilhelmina Drucker’s take on feminism during the Great War.This article explores the connection between feminism and the fight for peace during the First World War. Although the Netherlands were officially neutral, the horrors of the battlefield, the position of women and the measures that needed to be taken were at the centre of a fierce political debate. I focus in particular on the special contribution to the Peace Movement by secularist feminist and leading figure of the nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century feminist movement Wilhelmina Drucker (1847-1925). Her criticism of the war spared neither men nor women and comprised three dimensions: an antimilitarist dimension, a legal democratic one, and an ultra-radical combination of feminism and Neo-Malthusianism.
Corné SmitVoor de vorst, maar in naam van het volk. Hoe het conservatieve Dagblad van Zuidholland en ’s-Gravenhage populistische trekjes kreeg 115-134

Abstract (EN)
For the King, but in the name of the people. How the conservative Dagblad van Zuidholland en ’s-Gravenhage developed its
populist traits.
The Dutch conservatives in the nineteenth century used the concept of volkskoning (the people’s king) to legitimize their defence of royal prerogatives against the increasing power of parliament. This concept emphasized the bond between monarch and people and depicted the political elite as a threat to both. Based on a study of the conservative newspaper Dagblad van Zuidholland en ’s-Gravenhage, this article argues that the idea of the volkskoning was developed into a more populist argument in which the people became the de facto sovereign who had to be protected against the rotten elite in parliament.
Louis VeenPiet Mondriaan over neoplastisch kunstonderwijs 135-160

Abstract (EN)
Piet Mondrian on neoplastic art education.Piet Mondrian (1872-1944) was not only a painter, but also a prolific writer. He wrote more than a hundred essays in Dutch, French, and English on the subject of art and society. In three unfinished essays, Mondrian sketches a different art education than was customary at the fine art academies during the interwar period. He describes an education that does not focus on creating discrete art objects, but on designing the entire daily environment. Mondrian’s intention was that graduates who had finished the training would give the society a harmoniously balanced structure, which would ultimately lead to more harmony and peace in man. He believed that a ‘Paradise on Earth’ would be no longer be a dream when all aspects of life were designed according to the neoplastic principles. In order to achieve this, students of Mondrian’s art education had to study the fundamental principles on which Mondrian based his neoplastic paintings. The present article investigates the principles of neoplastic composition as laid out in these three texts, which can help our understanding of the thought and method behind Mondrian’s Neo-Plasticism.
Hanneke Nap, Iris van der Zande, Eelco Kramer, Gonda van den HeuvelSpeciale voorpublicatieOnder de huid van Zwarte Piet. (Schrik)figuren rond het Sint-Nicolaasfeest in de negentiende eeuw 161-187

Abstract (EN)
Under Black Pete’s skin. Dark figures around the nineteenth-century Feast of Saint Nicholas.The Dutch debate surrounding Black Pete (Zwarte Piet) has become deeply polarized. Proponents as well as opponents of the black assistant of Saint Nicholas base their opinions on his assumed origin. While supporters of Black Pete believe that he originated from pre-Christian traditions, the anti-Black Pete camp is convinced he can be traced back to a world of slavery and racism. This article shows that the present figure of Black Pete is a nineteenth-century amalgamation of different types and traditions. This means that Black Pete can not be reduced to a single, unambiguous meaning. Therefore, the answer to the question concerning his identity and his alleged racist character must be found in his reception rather than his origin.
Boekzaal der geleerde wereld 188-192

  • Richard Bionda, Matthijs Maris. Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum, 2017. Erma Hermens, Laura Raven en Suzanne Veldink, Matthijs Maris at Work. Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum, 2017. (Wiepke Loos)
De Moderne Tijd 2018, nr. 1

De Moderne Tijd 2 (2018) 1

Luca van Buren‘Centrum van weldadige kracht voor het onderwijs’ of ‘koopmanszaak’? Het Museum voor Onderwijs en Kunst te Rotterdam, 1880-1886 2-27

Abstract (EN)
‘Centre of a beneficent force in education’ or ‘ordinary merchant business’? The Museum of Education and Art in Rotterdam, 1880-1886.For a short period of time, the city of Rotterdam housed a rather unique museum, the Museum of Education and Art (Museum voor Onderwijs en Kunst). It existed for six years and only for less than a year in its original form. In 1880 it was unlike other educational or – as they were usually called – school museums. Other than today’s cultural history school museums, these museums were integrated in education and functioned as a means to support mass education by the state. They did so by exhibiting the whole range of school materials to enable headmasters and teachers to make informed choices. School materials were also displayed at educational exhibitions at world fairs. The Museum in Rotterdam was exceptional because it was a private, commercial enterprise, unlike other school museums which were established by schoolboards, local authorities, or by a state. In addition, it was the first and probably the only case with a purpose-built housing, where others generally used existing (school)buildings or were part of an arts and crafts museum.
Bram LambrechtBen je wat je leest? E. du Perrons Cahiers van een lezer: een lectuur 28-47

Abstract (EN)
Are you what you read? E. du Perron’s Notebooks of a reader.This article offers a close reading of E. du Perron’s influential Notebooks of a reader (Cahiers van een lezer). It focuses on Du Perron’s self-representation as a reader and his ideas on reading. On the one hand, author’s notebooks confirm his reputation as a subjective reader. Du Perron cherishes an utterly emotional reading method, an affective bond with writers and books and a volatile literary taste. On the other hand, the Notebooks allow us to refine his subjectivism. They demonstrate the importance of reading as a communal activity and the exemplary function of Du Perron’s own reading experiences.
Kris SteyaertIn ’t harte van Java (1881). Exotiek en nationalisme in het Indische oeuvre van Willem Jacobsz. Hofdijk 48-69

Abstract (EN)
In the heart of Java (1881). Exoticism and nationalism in the Dutch East Indies verse epics of Willem Jacobsz. Hofdijk.Towards the end of his life, the Dutch poet Willem Jacobsz. Hofdijk wrote his ambitious verse epic In the heart of Java (In ’t harte van Java), set in seventeenth-century Indonesia. Two similar works soon followed. This article examines the various literary techniques used by the author to evoke the exoticism of a world he had never experienced himself. The received idea that Hofdijk started writing his Dutch East Indies poems when his son joined the colonial army is exposed as a fallacy. It is my contention that Hofdijk’s epics, deliberately distorting historical facts, were intended to strengthen the resolve of the Dutch against the rebellious province of Aceh.
Lieske TibbeArtistieke versus politieke avant-garde. De beeldende kunsten in en om het tijdschrift Nieuw Rusland/Cultuur der U.d.S.S.R., 1928-1934 70-94

Abstract (EN)
Artistic versus political avant-gardism. The visual arts in and around the magazine Nieuw Rusland/Cultuur der U.d.S.S.R. (New Russia/Culture of the USSR), 1928-1934.This article concentrates on the position of the visual arts in Russia as presented in Nieuw Rusland (New Russia), organ of the Netherlands – New Russia Society. This Society was initiated by voks, the All-Union Society for Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries, established to coordinate international cultural contacts with artists and intellectuals in other countries in order to help lending the Soviet Union a positive and civilised image. The Netherlands – New Russia Society was suspected to be a communist umbrella organization, and indeed some of its members were moles. At the time, visual arts in Russia were in transition: the abstract avant-gardism of the first years after the Revolution was making way for moderately modern, figurative, and politically engaged painting. Easel painting in general had to yield to the graphic arts, photography and composite picture, especially as applied in posters, children’s books and magazines. Dutch editors of Nieuw Rusland had to communicate and explain or soften the often staunch political art theories of their Russian authors. From around 1932, Nieuw Rusland made a change of course from cultural information towards explicit political propaganda. In combination with a ban on membership of left-wing organizations for all public servants, this meant the end of the magazine.
Boekzaal der geleerde wereld 95-96

  • Els Kloek en Maarten Hell, Keetje Hodshon (1768-1829). Een rijke dame in revolutietijd. Nijmegen: Vantilt, 2017. (Mart Rutjes)
De Moderne Tijd 1 (2017) 3-4: ‘Kiesrecht en democratie’

De Moderne Tijd 1 (2017) 3-4: ‘Kiesrecht en democratie’

Adriejan van VeenTussen vergadering en vereniging. Het publieke debat over en experimenten met kandidaatstelling en kiezersorganisatie bij de eerste directe Tweede Kamerverkiezingen in 1848 247-276

Abstract (EN)
Between meeting and association. The public debate about and experiments with candidate selection and voter organization preceding the first direct elections for the Lower House of the Dutch Parliament in 1848.In November 1848, for the first time direct elections took place for the Lower House of the Dutch Parliament. Until then, overt political organization and participation had been frowned upon in the Netherlands, and made nearly impossible by a highly complex electoral system. This article, on the basis of digitized newspapers, for the first time examines the Dutch public debate about and country-wide local experiments with voter organizations in 1848. It argues that the risky openness of the new system persuaded many elite voters to accept voter organizations as a means to prevent possible radical minorities from selecting candidates. While the divided Dutch past and the revolutionary European present were invoked to plea for a ‘calm’ and ‘tranquil’ type of political organization, local political practice displayed more contestation and experimentation than heretofore recognized.
Ulla JanszVrouwenkiesrecht als omstreden kwestie onder Nederlandse feministen, 1870-1900 277-299

Abstract (EN)
Women’s suffrage as a controversial issue among Dutch feminists, 1870-1900.Female suffrage was not the Dutch women’s movement’s central issue from the beginning, nor did contemporary social reformers conceive it as part of the democratisation process they favoured. This article explores the public debate on women’s suffrage against the backdrop of the movement towards universal suffrage in its first three decades. Due to sources refraining from stating the obvious, it remains obscure why exactly parliamentary politics continued to be seen as an exclusively male domain for so long. What is clear, is that conservative feminists associated the demand for women’s suffrage with a radical strand of feminism which they abhorred.
Aukje van HoutWat Geertje overkwam en wat Marijtje d’er van docht. Literatuur als propagandamiddel van de Vereeniging voor Vrouwenkiesrecht 321-344

Abstract (EN)
What happened to Geertje and what Marijtje thought about it. The use of literature as propaganda by the Vereeniging voor Vrouwenkiesrecht.On October 7th 1908, the board of the Vereeniging voor Vrouwenkiesrecht (VvVK) invited the Dutch writer Johan de Meester (1860-1931) to one of their propaganda meetings where he presented fragments from his novel Geertje (1905). It is a remarkable fact that (non-political) literature was used for political purposes, but not uncommon: the VvVK was known to use literature as propaganda. In this article I will show that the VvVK adopted different strategies for literary propaganda: they used existing authoritative literature, but they also wrote texts themselves. Different types of texts were deployed for this purpose, such as authoritarian fiction with a certain degree of redundancy.
Ido de HaanOndemocratische verkiezingen? Legitimiteit, fraude en wantrouwen in de democratie 345-357

Abstract (EN)
Undemocratic elections? Legitimacy, fraud and mistrust in democracy.Even if elections are a contested aspect of democracy, the free and fair elections of political representatives play a pivotal role in the legitimation of political power. Election fraud was, and still is, a main threat to this form of democratic legitimacy. But even in countries with low levels of fraud and corruption, electoral democracy is undermined by a growing mistrust of representative institutions and their capacity to serve the interest of the people.
Boekzaal der geleerde wereld 358-368

  • 200 Jaar Verenigd Koninkrijk der Nederlanden. Noord en Zuid onder koning Willem I, 8 dln., red. Rik Vosters en Janneke Weijermars. Den Haag: Algemeen Nederlands Verbond en de Werkgroep Verenigd Koninkrijk der Nederlanden, 2012. (Matthias Meirlaen)
  • Jac. Biemans, August von Bonstetten. Een Zwitsers militair schetst ’s-Hertogenbosch 1815-1824. Nijmegen: Vantilt, 2016. (Louis Ph. Sloos)
  • Lieske Tibbe, Verstrengeling van traditie en vernieuwing, 1885-1905. Kunstkritiek in Nederland tijdens het fin de siècle. Rotterdam: NAI010 Uitgevers, 2014. (Annemiek Ouwerkerk)
De Moderne Tijd 1 (2017) 2

De Moderne Tijd 1 (2017) 2

Sandra van Voorst en Janneke WeijermarsInleiding 114-117
Mathijs SandersEen uurtje met Dirk Coster. De self-fashioning van een informant 118-133

Abstract (EN)
An hour with Dirk Coster. The self-fashioning of a literary informant.In 1927, the French literary magazine La Nouvelle Littéraire published an interview with the Dutch writer Dirk Coster by the renowned critic Frédéric Lefèvre in the series ‘Une heure avec …’. Coster used the opportunity to present himself as an international cultural mediator and as a spokesman of a humanistic conception of literature. This article analyses the interview by focussing on the way Coster was portrayed in front of a French audience and by interpreting his statements concerning both Dutch and French literature.
Leonieke Vermeer‘Waarom eigenlijk kruisjes in plaats van pollutie?’ Het dagboek (1901-1941) van Leo Polak in relatie tot het discours tegen masturbatie 134-159

Abstract (EN)
‘Why crosses instead of pollution?’ The diary of Leo Polak (1901-1941) and the discourse against masturbation.The diary of the Dutch criminal law theorist, philosopher, and freethinker Leo Polak, which recently has become accessible, contains symbols such as ‘X’ and ‘#’. In this article, I interpret such symbols not as ‘silence’, but as disguising, narrative strategies. These symbols and the way Polak reflects on them, can be connected to the discourse on masturbation as a ‘total illness’, which developed from the beginning of the eightteenth century to the 1930s. The symbols in Polak’s early diaries indicate that diary writing functioned as a medium to register and control his solitary sexual activity. The diaries show the anti-masturbation discourse; the experience of it, the struggle with it and ways to resist it. Later in life, he used these experiences in his work on Sexual ethics (1936) in which he rejects the medical and religious views on masturbation and makes a plea for the autonomy of the human mind and body.
Anne van BuulBeeldessay‘Een eerbiedwaardig reuzenwerk’. De Geïllustreerde Bijbel (1900) 160-180

Abstract (EN)
‘A venerable, giant piece of work’. The Illustrated Bible (1900).De Geïllustreerde Bijbel (The Illustrated Bible, 1900) is a Dutch Bible edition, initiated by the Illustrated Bible Society, containing 100 engravings by 27 artists from all over the world and decorated by Arts and Crafts artist Walter Crane. This essay shows the history of this bible project. It discusses the aims of the Illustrated Bible Society, the reception of the edition, its illustrations and decorations, and it shows how difficult it was to make such an expensive, time-consuming project successful.
Erica van Boven‘Hier is een man aan het woord’. Genderbeelden bij Tachtig 181-203

Abstract (EN)
‘This is a man speaking’. The use of gender metaphors in the Movement of the 1880’s.This article deals with the role of gender in the poetics and literary strategy within the so-called Movement of the 1880s (De Tachtigers). The analysis of the use of gendered metaphors in the writings of Willem Kloos, Lodewijk van Deyssel, Frans Netscher and Albert Verwey between 1882 and 1889 demonstrates that gender plays a specific and remarkable role in the way these young authors express their views and fight for their position.
Gillis Dorleijn‘Was hätten Verse von dieser Dezenz zu fürchten’. Over homoseksualiteit en poëzie 204-226

Abstract (EN)
‘Was hätten Verse von dieser Dezenz zu fürchten’. On homosexuality and poetry.Concepts of homosexuality circulate in the societal domain and affect literary culture. The first half of the twentieth century saw an increasing domestication of the public domain regarding homosexual practices. Using three perspectives – text, authorial posture, and reception – and focussing on a specific case, a volume of apparently homo-erotic poetry, this article identifies all kinds of tensions: poems touching on homo-erotic subjects while simultaneously covering them up by complex poetic devices; the poet’s posture invoking homo-erotic icons, yet refusing to be outspoken; a progressive critic reading the volume and struggling to reconcile extra-literary and literary norms.
Boekzaal der geleerde wereld 227-232

  • Marjet Brolsma, ‘Het humanitaire moment’. Nederlandse intellectuelen, de Eerste Wereldoorlog en het verlangen naar een regeneratie van de Europese cultuur (1914-1930). Hilversum: Uitgeverij Verloren, 2016. (Marlite Halbertsma)
  • Jeroen Kapelle (samenstelling), Bezield landschap. Leven en werk van Johannes Warnardus Bilders (1811-1890). Wageningen: Uitgeverij Blauwdruk, 2016. (Wiepke Loos)
  • Terry van Druten, Annemieke Hoogenboom, Jeroen Kapelle e.a., Jan Weissenbruch. Bussum: Toth, 2016. (Wiepke Loos)
De Moderne Tijd 2017, nr. 1

De Moderne Tijd 1 (2017) 1

De redactieInleiding 2-3
Marita MathijsenDe “echte” historische roman en het “echte” scottiaanse dichtverhaal in “de moderne tijd” 4-26

Abstract (EN)
The ‘genuine’ historical novel and the ‘genuine’ scottian epic poem in ‘modern times’.For over a century, it has been taken for granted that David Jacob van Lennep’s Discourse on the significance of Holland’s soil and antiquities for sentiment and imagination (1827) inaugurated the historical novel as a specific literary genre in the Netherlands. The historical epic is supposed to have benefited similarly. In this article I inquire whether the conventional separation between historical novels and epics before and after 1827 does in fact rest on objective and tangible characteristics of these works. If we were to examine the entire corpus of historicising literature between 1780 and 1940, would we or would we not encounter a continuous developmental line? A preliminary investigation of some specific cases suggests that, as a genre, the historical epic has vanished completely, whereas the historical novel remained as vital as before up to World War II. Its objective, however, was no longer the re-enactment of the past but the dissolution of the separation between past and present.
Jan Luitzen en Wim ZonneveldActie op het veld. Een visuele benadering van negentiende-eeuwse voetbalgeschiedenis in Nederland 27-50

Abstract (EN)
Action on the pitch. A visual approach to nineteenth century football history in The Netherlands.This article illustrates the ‘visual turn’ approach to sports history in an analysis of traditionally under-researched material from the late nineteenth century. Focusing on football (‘soccer’) action photography, we argue that interpreting this visual material contributes significantly to the exploration and interpretation of the broader social and cultural context within which sports were practised and the visual material was produced. Regarding the latter, the photographer’s challenge was to capture the movement inherent in the practice of sports generally and of football specifically. Our analysis explains the time at which these pictures first appear as a consequence of developing possibilities and skills in ongoing photographic experimentation. This is illustrated by a case study of a football action photograph from the archives of the Noorthey Institute for boys in Voorschoten, dating from 1895-1897. There, conducting sports was seen as a way of enhancing the students’ physical and mental strengths, including improved study performance.
It took place in an atmosphere of camaraderie among teachers and students, the
latter acting as supervisors and teammates at the same time. Beyond the texts, the photographs visualize what this educational approach entailed in actual practice.
Myrthel Van Etterbeeck“Het ogenblikkelijke of het toekomende, wie heeft gelijk?” De oorlogsliteratuur van Abraham Hans 51-77

Abstract (EN)
Writing for the present or writing for the future? The war literature of Abraham Hans.Even though his name may mean little to readers today, the work of Abraham Hans (1882-1939) was hugely popular with the Flemish public in the interwar period. This article studies his neglected World War I novels which, like most of the Flemish war literature, have received little critical attention. On the one hand, it
explores the ideas that inform Hans’ representation of the war. On the other, it argues that his work did play a role as a medium of cultural memory in the interwar period.
Jan Hein FurnéeRond de vulkaan. La Muette de Portici tussen Parijse creatie en Noord-Nederlandse receptie 78-107

Abstract (EN)
Around the volcano. La Muette de Portici between creation in Paris and reception in the Northern Netherlands.Since its première in 1828, La Muette de Portici has been one of the most popular grands opéras performed in Dutch theatres in the nineteenth century, despite its reputation of having incited the Belgian Revolt of 1830. Based on a wide range of primary sources, this article analyses how, in the initial process of cultural transfer from Paris to the Netherlands, the opera with its ambivalent political tenor was staged and received differently in three theatres in Amsterdam and The Hague. In the aftermath of the Belgian Revolt, authorities, artists, press critics and audiences subsequently problematized, rehabilitated and enriched the opera with new meanings. After having been feared and condemned, ‘Amour sacré de la Patrie’ again became a favorite aria to enthusiastically respond to.
Boekzaal der geleerde wereld 108-115

  • Lynne Ambrosini, Maite van Dijk, Nienke Bakker e.a. Daubigny, Monet, Van Gogh. Impressies van het landschap. Amsterdam: Van Gogh Museum, 2016-2017. (Wiepke Loos)
  • Lotte Jensen. Vieren van vrede. Het ontstaan van de Nederlandse identiteit, 1648-1815. Nijmegen: Vantilt, 2016. (Kornee van der Haven)