De Moderne Tijd 2018, nr. 1

De Moderne Tijd 2 (2018) 1

Luca van Buren‘Centrum van weldadige kracht voor het onderwijs’ of ‘koopmanszaak’? Het Museum voor Onderwijs en Kunst te Rotterdam, 1880-1886 2-27

Abstract (EN)
‘Centre of a beneficent force in education’ or ‘ordinary merchant business’? The Museum of Education and Art in Rotterdam, 1880-1886.For a short period of time, the city of Rotterdam housed a rather unique museum, the Museum of Education and Art (Museum voor Onderwijs en Kunst). It existed for six years and only for less than a year in its original form. In 1880 it was unlike other educational or – as they were usually called – school museums. Other than today’s cultural history school museums, these museums were integrated in education and functioned as a means to support mass education by the state. They did so by exhibiting the whole range of school materials to enable headmasters and teachers to make informed choices. School materials were also displayed at educational exhibitions at world fairs. The Museum in Rotterdam was exceptional because it was a private, commercial enterprise, unlike other school museums which were established by schoolboards, local authorities, or by a state. In addition, it was the first and probably the only case with a purpose-built housing, where others generally used existing (school)buildings or were part of an arts and crafts museum.
Bram LambrechtBen je wat je leest? E. du Perrons Cahiers van een lezer: een lectuur 28-47

Abstract (EN)
Are you what you read? E. du Perron’s Notebooks of a reader.This article offers a close reading of E. du Perron’s influential Notebooks of a reader (Cahiers van een lezer). It focuses on Du Perron’s self-representation as a reader and his ideas on reading. On the one hand, author’s notebooks confirm his reputation as a subjective reader. Du Perron cherishes an utterly emotional reading method, an affective bond with writers and books and a volatile literary taste. On the other hand, the Notebooks allow us to refine his subjectivism. They demonstrate the importance of reading as a communal activity and the exemplary function of Du Perron’s own reading experiences.
Kris SteyaertIn ’t harte van Java (1881). Exotiek en nationalisme in het Indische oeuvre van Willem Jacobsz. Hofdijk 48-69

Abstract (EN)
In the heart of Java (1881). Exoticism and nationalism in the Dutch East Indies verse epics of Willem Jacobsz. Hofdijk.Towards the end of his life, the Dutch poet Willem Jacobsz. Hofdijk wrote his ambitious verse epic In the heart of Java (In ’t harte van Java), set in seventeenth-century Indonesia. Two similar works soon followed. This article examines the various literary techniques used by the author to evoke the exoticism of a world he had never experienced himself. The received idea that Hofdijk started writing his Dutch East Indies poems when his son joined the colonial army is exposed as a fallacy. It is my contention that Hofdijk’s epics, deliberately distorting historical facts, were intended to strengthen the resolve of the Dutch against the rebellious province of Aceh.
Lieske TibbeArtistieke versus politieke avant-garde. De beeldende kunsten in en om het tijdschrift Nieuw Rusland/Cultuur der U.d.S.S.R., 1928-1934 70-94

Abstract (EN)
Artistic versus political avant-gardism. The visual arts in and around the magazine Nieuw Rusland/Cultuur der U.d.S.S.R. (New Russia/Culture of the USSR), 1928-1934.This article concentrates on the position of the visual arts in Russia as presented in Nieuw Rusland (New Russia), organ of the Netherlands – New Russia Society. This Society was initiated by voks, the All-Union Society for Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries, established to coordinate international cultural contacts with artists and intellectuals in other countries in order to help lending the Soviet Union a positive and civilised image. The Netherlands – New Russia Society was suspected to be a communist umbrella organization, and indeed some of its members were moles. At the time, visual arts in Russia were in transition: the abstract avant-gardism of the first years after the Revolution was making way for moderately modern, figurative, and politically engaged painting. Easel painting in general had to yield to the graphic arts, photography and composite picture, especially as applied in posters, children’s books and magazines. Dutch editors of Nieuw Rusland had to communicate and explain or soften the often staunch political art theories of their Russian authors. From around 1932, Nieuw Rusland made a change of course from cultural information towards explicit political propaganda. In combination with a ban on membership of left-wing organizations for all public servants, this meant the end of the magazine.
Boekzaal der geleerde wereld 95-96

  • Els Kloek en Maarten Hell, Keetje Hodshon (1768-1829). Een rijke dame in revolutietijd. Nijmegen: Vantilt, 2017. (Mart Rutjes)
De Moderne Tijd 1 (2017) 3-4: ‘Kiesrecht en democratie’

De Moderne Tijd 1 (2017) 3-4: ‘Kiesrecht en democratie’

Adriejan van VeenTussen vergadering en vereniging. Het publieke debat over en experimenten met kandidaatstelling en kiezersorganisatie bij de eerste directe Tweede Kamerverkiezingen in 1848 247-276

Abstract (EN)
Between meeting and association. The public debate about and experiments with candidate selection and voter organization preceding the first direct elections for the Lower House of the Dutch Parliament in 1848.In November 1848, for the first time direct elections took place for the Lower House of the Dutch Parliament. Until then, overt political organization and participation had been frowned upon in the Netherlands, and made nearly impossible by a highly complex electoral system. This article, on the basis of digitized newspapers, for the first time examines the Dutch public debate about and country-wide local experiments with voter organizations in 1848. It argues that the risky openness of the new system persuaded many elite voters to accept voter organizations as a means to prevent possible radical minorities from selecting candidates. While the divided Dutch past and the revolutionary European present were invoked to plea for a ‘calm’ and ‘tranquil’ type of political organization, local political practice displayed more contestation and experimentation than heretofore recognized.
Ulla JanszVrouwenkiesrecht als omstreden kwestie onder Nederlandse feministen, 1870-1900 277-299

Abstract (EN)
Women’s suffrage as a controversial issue among Dutch feminists, 1870-1900.Female suffrage was not the Dutch women’s movement’s central issue from the beginning, nor did contemporary social reformers conceive it as part of the democratisation process they favoured. This article explores the public debate on women’s suffrage against the backdrop of the movement towards universal suffrage in its first three decades. Due to sources refraining from stating the obvious, it remains obscure why exactly parliamentary politics continued to be seen as an exclusively male domain for so long. What is clear, is that conservative feminists associated the demand for women’s suffrage with a radical strand of feminism which they abhorred.
Aukje van HoutWat Geertje overkwam en wat Marijtje d’er van docht. Literatuur als propagandamiddel van de Vereeniging voor Vrouwenkiesrecht 321-344

Abstract (EN)
What happened to Geertje and what Marijtje thought about it. The use of literature as propaganda by the Vereeniging voor Vrouwenkiesrecht.On October 7th 1908, the board of the Vereeniging voor Vrouwenkiesrecht (VvVK) invited the Dutch writer Johan de Meester (1860-1931) to one of their propaganda meetings where he presented fragments from his novel Geertje (1905). It is a remarkable fact that (non-political) literature was used for political purposes, but not uncommon: the VvVK was known to use literature as propaganda. In this article I will show that the VvVK adopted different strategies for literary propaganda: they used existing authoritative literature, but they also wrote texts themselves. Different types of texts were deployed for this purpose, such as authoritarian fiction with a certain degree of redundancy.
Ido de HaanOndemocratische verkiezingen? Legitimiteit, fraude en wantrouwen in de democratie 345-357

Abstract (EN)
Undemocratic elections? Legitimacy, fraud and mistrust in democracy.Even if elections are a contested aspect of democracy, the free and fair elections of political representatives play a pivotal role in the legitimation of political power. Election fraud was, and still is, a main threat to this form of democratic legitimacy. But even in countries with low levels of fraud and corruption, electoral democracy is undermined by a growing mistrust of representative institutions and their capacity to serve the interest of the people.
Boekzaal der geleerde wereld 358-368

  • 200 Jaar Verenigd Koninkrijk der Nederlanden. Noord en Zuid onder koning Willem I, 8 dln., red. Rik Vosters en Janneke Weijermars. Den Haag: Algemeen Nederlands Verbond en de Werkgroep Verenigd Koninkrijk der Nederlanden, 2012. (Matthias Meirlaen)
  • Jac. Biemans, August von Bonstetten. Een Zwitsers militair schetst ’s-Hertogenbosch 1815-1824. Nijmegen: Vantilt, 2016. (Louis Ph. Sloos)
  • Lieske Tibbe, Verstrengeling van traditie en vernieuwing, 1885-1905. Kunstkritiek in Nederland tijdens het fin de siècle. Rotterdam: NAI010 Uitgevers, 2014. (Annemiek Ouwerkerk)
De Moderne Tijd 1 (2017) 2

De Moderne Tijd 1 (2017) 2

Sandra van Voorst en Janneke WeijermarsInleiding 114-117
Mathijs SandersEen uurtje met Dirk Coster. De self-fashioning van een informant 118-133

Abstract (EN)
An hour with Dirk Coster. The self-fashioning of a literary informant.In 1927, the French literary magazine La Nouvelle Littéraire published an interview with the Dutch writer Dirk Coster by the renowned critic Frédéric Lefèvre in the series ‘Une heure avec …’. Coster used the opportunity to present himself as an international cultural mediator and as a spokesman of a humanistic conception of literature. This article analyses the interview by focussing on the way Coster was portrayed in front of a French audience and by interpreting his statements concerning both Dutch and French literature.
Leonieke Vermeer‘Waarom eigenlijk kruisjes in plaats van pollutie?’ Het dagboek (1901-1941) van Leo Polak in relatie tot het discours tegen masturbatie 134-159

Abstract (EN)
‘Why crosses instead of pollution?’ The diary of Leo Polak (1901-1941) and the discourse against masturbation.The diary of the Dutch criminal law theorist, philosopher, and freethinker Leo Polak, which recently has become accessible, contains symbols such as ‘X’ and ‘#’. In this article, I interpret such symbols not as ‘silence’, but as disguising, narrative strategies. These symbols and the way Polak reflects on them, can be connected to the discourse on masturbation as a ‘total illness’, which developed from the beginning of the eightteenth century to the 1930s. The symbols in Polak’s early diaries indicate that diary writing functioned as a medium to register and control his solitary sexual activity. The diaries show the anti-masturbation discourse; the experience of it, the struggle with it and ways to resist it. Later in life, he used these experiences in his work on Sexual ethics (1936) in which he rejects the medical and religious views on masturbation and makes a plea for the autonomy of the human mind and body.
Anne van BuulBeeldessay‘Een eerbiedwaardig reuzenwerk’. De Geïllustreerde Bijbel (1900) 160-180

Abstract (EN)
‘A venerable, giant piece of work’. The Illustrated Bible (1900).De Geïllustreerde Bijbel (The Illustrated Bible, 1900) is a Dutch Bible edition, initiated by the Illustrated Bible Society, containing 100 engravings by 27 artists from all over the world and decorated by Arts and Crafts artist Walter Crane. This essay shows the history of this bible project. It discusses the aims of the Illustrated Bible Society, the reception of the edition, its illustrations and decorations, and it shows how difficult it was to make such an expensive, time-consuming project successful.
Erica van Boven‘Hier is een man aan het woord’. Genderbeelden bij Tachtig 181-203

Abstract (EN)
‘This is a man speaking’. The use of gender metaphors in the Movement of the 1880’s.This article deals with the role of gender in the poetics and literary strategy within the so-called Movement of the 1880s (De Tachtigers). The analysis of the use of gendered metaphors in the writings of Willem Kloos, Lodewijk van Deyssel, Frans Netscher and Albert Verwey between 1882 and 1889 demonstrates that gender plays a specific and remarkable role in the way these young authors express their views and fight for their position.
Gillis Dorleijn‘Was hätten Verse von dieser Dezenz zu fürchten’. Over homoseksualiteit en poëzie 204-226

Abstract (EN)
‘Was hätten Verse von dieser Dezenz zu fürchten’. On homosexuality and poetry.Concepts of homosexuality circulate in the societal domain and affect literary culture. The first half of the twentieth century saw an increasing domestication of the public domain regarding homosexual practices. Using three perspectives – text, authorial posture, and reception – and focussing on a specific case, a volume of apparently homo-erotic poetry, this article identifies all kinds of tensions: poems touching on homo-erotic subjects while simultaneously covering them up by complex poetic devices; the poet’s posture invoking homo-erotic icons, yet refusing to be outspoken; a progressive critic reading the volume and struggling to reconcile extra-literary and literary norms.
Boekzaal der geleerde wereld 227-232

  • Marjet Brolsma, ‘Het humanitaire moment’. Nederlandse intellectuelen, de Eerste Wereldoorlog en het verlangen naar een regeneratie van de Europese cultuur (1914-1930). Hilversum: Uitgeverij Verloren, 2016. (Marlite Halbertsma)
  • Jeroen Kapelle (samenstelling), Bezield landschap. Leven en werk van Johannes Warnardus Bilders (1811-1890). Wageningen: Uitgeverij Blauwdruk, 2016. (Wiepke Loos)
  • Terry van Druten, Annemieke Hoogenboom, Jeroen Kapelle e.a., Jan Weissenbruch. Bussum: Toth, 2016. (Wiepke Loos)
De Moderne Tijd 2017, nr. 1

De Moderne Tijd 1 (2017) 1

De redactieInleiding 2-3
Marita MathijsenDe “echte” historische roman en het “echte” scottiaanse dichtverhaal in “de moderne tijd” 4-26

Abstract (EN)
The ‘genuine’ historical novel and the ‘genuine’ scottian epic poem in ‘modern times’.For over a century, it has been taken for granted that David Jacob van Lennep’s Discourse on the significance of Holland’s soil and antiquities for sentiment and imagination (1827) inaugurated the historical novel as a specific literary genre in the Netherlands. The historical epic is supposed to have benefited similarly. In this article I inquire whether the conventional separation between historical novels and epics before and after 1827 does in fact rest on objective and tangible characteristics of these works. If we were to examine the entire corpus of historicising literature between 1780 and 1940, would we or would we not encounter a continuous developmental line? A preliminary investigation of some specific cases suggests that, as a genre, the historical epic has vanished completely, whereas the historical novel remained as vital as before up to World War II. Its objective, however, was no longer the re-enactment of the past but the dissolution of the separation between past and present.
Jan Luitzen en Wim ZonneveldActie op het veld. Een visuele benadering van negentiende-eeuwse voetbalgeschiedenis in Nederland 27-50

Abstract (EN)
Action on the pitch. A visual approach to nineteenth century football history in The Netherlands.This article illustrates the ‘visual turn’ approach to sports history in an analysis of traditionally under-researched material from the late nineteenth century. Focusing on football (‘soccer’) action photography, we argue that interpreting this visual material contributes significantly to the exploration and interpretation of the broader social and cultural context within which sports were practised and the visual material was produced. Regarding the latter, the photographer’s challenge was to capture the movement inherent in the practice of sports generally and of football specifically. Our analysis explains the time at which these pictures first appear as a consequence of developing possibilities and skills in ongoing photographic experimentation. This is illustrated by a case study of a football action photograph from the archives of the Noorthey Institute for boys in Voorschoten, dating from 1895-1897. There, conducting sports was seen as a way of enhancing the students’ physical and mental strengths, including improved study performance.
It took place in an atmosphere of camaraderie among teachers and students, the
latter acting as supervisors and teammates at the same time. Beyond the texts, the photographs visualize what this educational approach entailed in actual practice.
Myrthel Van Etterbeeck“Het ogenblikkelijke of het toekomende, wie heeft gelijk?” De oorlogsliteratuur van Abraham Hans 51-77

Abstract (EN)
Writing for the present or writing for the future? The war literature of Abraham Hans.Even though his name may mean little to readers today, the work of Abraham Hans (1882-1939) was hugely popular with the Flemish public in the interwar period. This article studies his neglected World War I novels which, like most of the Flemish war literature, have received little critical attention. On the one hand, it
explores the ideas that inform Hans’ representation of the war. On the other, it argues that his work did play a role as a medium of cultural memory in the interwar period.
Jan Hein FurnéeRond de vulkaan. La Muette de Portici tussen Parijse creatie en Noord-Nederlandse receptie 78-107

Abstract (EN)
Around the volcano. La Muette de Portici between creation in Paris and reception in the Northern Netherlands.Since its première in 1828, La Muette de Portici has been one of the most popular grands opéras performed in Dutch theatres in the nineteenth century, despite its reputation of having incited the Belgian Revolt of 1830. Based on a wide range of primary sources, this article analyses how, in the initial process of cultural transfer from Paris to the Netherlands, the opera with its ambivalent political tenor was staged and received differently in three theatres in Amsterdam and The Hague. In the aftermath of the Belgian Revolt, authorities, artists, press critics and audiences subsequently problematized, rehabilitated and enriched the opera with new meanings. After having been feared and condemned, ‘Amour sacré de la Patrie’ again became a favorite aria to enthusiastically respond to.
Boekzaal der geleerde wereld 108-115

  • Lynne Ambrosini, Maite van Dijk, Nienke Bakker e.a. Daubigny, Monet, Van Gogh. Impressies van het landschap. Amsterdam: Van Gogh Museum, 2016-2017. (Wiepke Loos)
  • Lotte Jensen. Vieren van vrede. Het ontstaan van de Nederlandse identiteit, 1648-1815. Nijmegen: Vantilt, 2016. (Kornee van der Haven)
De Negentiende Eeuw 2016, nr. 4

De Negentiende Eeuw 40 (2016) 4: ‘Amerika!’

Janneke WeijermarsInleiding 249-250
Leen DresenLiefst met Burroughs zijn boekjes op zak. Amerikaanse natuurschrijvers en Jac. P. Thijsse 251-273

Abstract (EN)
On his way with John Burroughs. American nature writers and Jac. P. Thijsse.Jac. P. Thijsse was a key figure in the early nature protection movement in The Netherlands. When he started to promote his ideas on this subject, he was already well known as a nature writer. In his work he frequently expressed his admiration for American writers like John Burroughs, Henry David Thoreau and Ernest Thompson Seton. This article analyses how Thijsse used American authors and developments as a source of inspiration, and as examples that could help him to promote his own ideas about nature protection. Similarities are pointed out between Thijsse’s work and the writers mentioned above in three domains: a preference for studying nature close to home, around the town where one lives; camping vacations and outdoor sports, and establishing sanctuaries for wildlife as a practical way to protect nature.
Josephina de FouwAmerika in Dordrecht. Een allegorie op het verdrag van 1782 in een Dordtse koopmanswoning 274-290

Abstract (EN)
America in Dordrecht. An allegory on the treaty of 1782 in a merchant’s house.On 8 October 1782 the Dutch Republic and the United States signed a Treaty of Amity and Commerce in The Hague. This article focuses on a remarkable overdoor painting with an allegorical representation of the treaty. The painting, nowadays in the Rijksmuseum collection, was commissioned by Jan Rens Jansz. (1726-1798), a sugar refiner, for his house in Dordrecht. A study into the interior of the building reveals how Rens in a unique way expressed his political views in the privacy of his house. By looking at Rens’s personal circumstances and the political situation in Dordrecht, the article points out what drove Rens to propagate the treaty so explicitly. The case demonstrates the extent to which Dutch merchants were engaged in the treaty with the United States.
Robert VerhoogtDe tovenaar van de moderne tijd. Over de receptie van Thomas Alva Edison in Nederland in de negentiende eeuw 291-314

Abstract (EN)
The wizard of modern times. On the reception of Thomas Alva Edison in the Netherlands in the late nineteenth century.Since December 1877 Thomas Alva Edison surprised the world with his remarkable inventions like his phonograph and electric light bulb. Soon Edison became the great inventor in the late nineteenth century. He was world famous, but what was the reception of his life and work in the Netherlands? In what way were his inventions termed and appreciated here at the end of the nineteenth century? The introduction of new media inspired the theoretical and historical research of technology and innovation in society. Inspired by cultural historical analyses of technology this article explores the reception of the inventor Thomas Edison in Netherlands by analysing Dutch contemporary newspapers from the late nineteenth century. Edison himself almost certainly has never put one footstep in the Netherlands, but his life and inventions were closely followed as we can read in numerous articles, feuilletons, and advertisements. Popular topics were his famous factory in Menlo Park and his illustrious inventions: the phonograph and his electric light bulb. Soon Edison was recognized as an exceptional entrepreneur, a mythical giant, the wizard of Menlo Park, the electrifying artist, or ‘His Royal Highness’ Edison. Edison became a legendary inventor in the Netherlands thanks to his fascinating inventions and ideas concerning technological innovation in modern society.
Jenny ReynaertsBeelden van de Amerikaanse wildernis. De erfenis van de schilder Alexander Wüst (1837-1876) 315-333

Abstract (EN)
Images of the American wilderness. The heritage of the painter Alexander Wüst (1837-1876).Since 1891 the Dordrechts Museum houses some barely known paintings and watercolours by Alexander Wüst, born in Dordrecht but raised in New York. His landscapes depict the American landscape in the romantic manner. Later in life Wüst settled in Antwerp but kept his ties with New York. Thus, the artist takes up a unique position in the art world of both Europe and the USA. Though European spectators were familiar with the panoramas of American landscapes, Wüst promoted his own blend of romantic landscape and pioneer image. Did his career benefit from this reputation and the European curiosity for America?
Lieske TibbeHolland op z’n mooist in Amerika. De Wereldtentoonstelling van 1876 in Philadelphia 334-350

Abstract (EN)
Beautiful Holland in America. The 1876 International Exhibition in Philadelphia.In 1876, an International Exhibition was organized in Philadelphia to celebrate the one-hundredth anniversary of the Declaration of Independence. Dutch industry and commerce were reluctant to participate due to the risks and costs of transport. Dutch painters, by contrast, foresaw an interesting new market in the United States and were eager to send in their works. Consequently, the Dutch contribution to the exposition was dominated by civil engineering, education, book printing, farming, colonial exhibits, and the visual arts. Using catalogues, official reports, newspaper reviews, graphic illustrations and photographs, it is possible to reconstruct several of the Dutch presentations at the Exhibition. Due to the well-groomed exhibits of culture and art, and the absence of industry and trade, Holland was represented and perceived as a peaceful, public-spirited community, characterized by its many waters, pastures, grazing cows, mills and dunes, and unstained by modern life.
Boekzaal der geleerde wereld 351-357

  • Ellinoor Bergvelt e.a. (red.), P.C. Wonder (1777-1852). Een Utrechter in Londen. Eindhoven: Lecturis, 2015. (Krul Wessel)
  • Christianne Smit, De volksverheffers. Sociaal hervormers in Nederland en de wereld 1870-1914. Hilversum: Uitgeverij Verloren, 2016. (Marlite Halbertsma)
  • Salvador Bloemgarten, Justus Swavings wondere bestaan. Wereldreiziger van 1784 tot 1835. Amsterdam: Boom, 2015. (Lieske Tibbe)
  • Erno Kiljan & Antoon Erftemeijer (red.), Cornelis Lieste (1817-1861). Maler des Lichts/Schilder van het licht. Kleef: B.C. Koekkoek-Huis, 2016. (Wiepke Loos)
  • Henk te Velde, Sprekende politiek. Redenaars en hun publiek in de parlementaire gouden eeuw. Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2015. (Theo Jung)
De Negentiende Eeuw 2016, nr. 3

De Negentiende Eeuw 40 (2016) 3: ‘Na 160 jaar. Nieuwe perspectieven op Hendrik Tollens’

Jan OosterholtTollens en de toneelspelen van Pigault-Lebrun 153-168

Abstract (EN)
Tollens and the plays by Pigault-Lebrun.At the start of his literary career Dutch author Hendrik Tollens was very much involved in drama. This article discusses Tollens’ translations of two plays written by the French author Pigault-Lebrun: Le cordonnier de Damas and Claudine de Florian. The texts belong to a genre which Dutch critics around 1800 disdainfully typified as a ‘middelding’ (‘in-between-thing’), a mixture of tragedy and comedy. As a translator Tollens did not take great liberties with Pigault’s texts: he probably didn’t find it necessary to adapt them to a Dutch audience, because he experienced the enlightened moral of these French plays as cosmopolitan.
Lotte JensenDichter des vaderlands? De transnationale Tollens 169-201

Abstract (EN)
A truly national poet? Tollens from a transnational perspective.Hendrik Tollens (1780-1856) is usually considered one of the most nationalistic poets in Dutch literary history. He is mainly remembered for being the author of anti-French resistance poetry, patriotic poetry on historical topics of the Dutch past, and the national anthem. This article reconsiders his image as a truly national poet by discussing his work from a transnational perspective. An astonishing 46% of his oeuvre consisted of translations. What’s more, his original work was also deeply influenced by the writings of German, English and French poets. Tollens adapted some of their works to such an extent that they were perceived as typically Dutch. This process of cultural assimilation, which becomes visible by situating Tollens’s work in the wider European context, is the key to understanding the persistence of his image as a truly national poet.
Marita Mathijsen‘’k Wil langer huislijk heil noch kindsch gekozel spelen’. Hendrik Tollens als historiedichter 202-214

Abstract (EN)
‘Homely pleasures, childish babbling – no longer do I want to play them’. Hendrik Tollens as a history poet.Hendrik Tollens is known as the poet of everyday life. Even so, a large portion of his poetry deals with historical themes, thus fitting in with the ‘history addiction’ predominant in the arts of the early nineteenth century. In contrast with other, younger writers, who find historical fiction just as important for knowledge of the past as history writing proper, Tollens does not claim to do historical research. In his poetry he uses the past in two ways, as Arcadian scenery and as a kind of mobiliser. In the second variety he uses the past to call the present to action like, for instance, resistance against the French occupier or reconciliation between political or religious opponents. Poems like this may be characterised as ‘dual-timed’ – a characteristic they do share with the poetry of a younger generation.
Rick HoningsBescheidenheid en Bilderdijkiaans bewustzijn. De paradox van Hendrik Tollens’ self-fashioning 215-233

Abstract (EN)
Modesty and Bilderdijkian awareness. The paradox of Hendrik Tollens’ selffashioning.Hendrik Tollens was the most famous poet of the early nineteenth century. Making use of the theory of self-fashioning this article demonstrates how Tollens constructed his literary image. This is a new approach, because Tollens was – contrary to more eccentric poets – never analysed in this respect. There is a strange paradox about Tollens’ self-fashioning. On the one hand he propagated modesty, on the other hand he embraced the idea of the furor poeticus, which he adopted from his idol Willem Bilderdijk. In this article, the curious tension between selffashioning and literary fandom is examined.
Ruud PoortierTollens, thuis en onderweg. Hendrik Tollens en de materiële herinneringscultuur 234-247

Abstract (EN)
Tollens at home and on the road. Hendrik Tollens and the material aspects of memory culture.Tollens’ work as a poet has largely vanished from collective memory since his death in 1856 and has been subject to endless and partly subjective abuse. This article addresses the material mementos involving Hendrik Tollens and focuses on three elements: the statues (Rotterdam, Rijswijk), public collections, and namegiving, including those of streets. In all of these cases the conclusion is that the material memories need to be conserved, made accessible and be provided with explanations so they will function as such for future generations.
De Negentiende eeuw 2016, nr. 2: Waterloo

De Negentiende Eeuw 40 (2016) 2: ‘Waterloo herinnerd, herdacht en herbeleefd’

Jeroen van Zanten en Jan de HondInleiding. ‘Den eindpaal te Waterloo’ 81-83
Janneke Weijermars‘Heel Euroop zal zich terstond vereenen’. Europa in de Nederlandse Waterlooliteratuur 84-103

Abstract (EN)
‘All of Europe will soon unite’. Europe in Dutch Waterloo literature.Throughout the centuries, the self-image of Europe and Europeans has been subject to change, and different opinions on this matter have existed simultaneously. Nevertheless, the Battle of Waterloo has offered a communal point of reference in European consciousness for both his supporters and opponents. Waterloo rocked Europe to its foundations and it was by far the largest battle ever fought on the Low Countries’ soil. The battle immediately attained mythical status and European artists of diverse tempers, such as Victor Hugo, Willem Bilderdijk, Walter Scott and Multatuli have contributed to its remembrance. This article aims to investigate the Waterloo literature of the Low Countries from a European perspective, and to analyze the literary representation of European characters, stereotypes and self-images. This fragmented history of the Low Countries and their importance for the political stability of Western Europe presented an ideal environment in which European self-images could be expressed.
Jolien GijbelsOog in oog met het slagveld van Waterloo. Het herinneringslandschap in de beleving van Britse, Franse, Pruisische en Nederlandse reizigers (1815-1870) 104-121

Abstract (EN)
Faced with the battlefield of Waterloo. The memory landscape in the perception of British, French, Prussian and Dutch travellers (1815-1870).In the aftermath of the Battle of Waterloo, the battlefield developed into a traditional destination for tourists on the continent. Up to now, nineteenth-century visits to Waterloo have mainly been analysed from the perspective of British travellers. This article will foreground the national differences in dealing with the battlefield on the basis of British, French, Prussian and Dutch travel accounts. The way tourists approached the battlefield points to a tension between a collective national perception and an individual experience of the past. Whereas the nation state was the dominant frame from which they judged their environment, visitors also looked actively for a personal, unique relationship with the past. The tangible remains of the battle were essential to their attempts to recall the battle.
Maria Grever en James ScharinkLeren voor het vaderland? De Slag bij Waterloo in Nederlandse geschiedenismethoden 122-133

Abstract (EN)
Learning for the Fatherland? The Battle of Waterloo in Dutch history textbooks.In this article we discuss how and why the Battle of Waterloo was represented in Dutch history textbooks for secondary education during the twentieth century. How many pages were devoted to the battle? Who were the protagonists? The research shows that the number of pages devoted to Waterloo decreased, a tendency which was strengthened after World War II. Particularly between 1960 and 1990 schoolbooks dismissed national and military history, including the Battle of Waterloo. Remarkably, we also noticed for the whole period an epic concentration on Napoleon, Blücher en Wellington. The schoolbooks seem to follow British historiography and hardly paid attention to crown prince William of Orange. The probable reasons for this was that the topic was often placed in a chapter about European history. Since 2000, Dutch history textbooks focus more on national history. However, the Battle of Waterloo remains a minor topic. Textbooks also ignore the diversity of the allied forces, including the military contribution of the Dutch prince.
Tom Verschaffel(On)gehinderd door het heden. Re-enactment en het naspelen van Waterloo 134-139

Abstract (EN)
Re-enactment and reconstruction of Waterloo.In June 2015 the Battle of Waterloo was reconstructed on the site. This event was the most spectacular and most popular part of the anniversary celebrations as well as a major manifestation of the international reenactment movement. For a large audience it provided convincing evidence for both the enchantment and the contradictions of historical reconstruction and reenactment as a public performance. The strategies and instruments used to make the spectacle comprehensible for the audience as well as the presence of the public as such (the well-filled and always visible stands) undermine the historical illusion and experience. Anthropological research on re-enactment groups and the programs and testimonies of the reenactors themselves confirm the impression of the re-enactment community as a (more or less) closed and idealized community, for which ‘those outside reenactment’ are considered as uninitiated and even intruders. Occasional performance and public are necessary for the legitimacy of the activity, but the essence of reenactment lies in the experience of re-enactors themselves.
De Negentiende Eeuw 2016 1

De Negentiende Eeuw 40 (2016) 1

Gert-Jan Johannes en Inger Leemans‘Van den handel zou hij zingen’. Nederlandse koophandelsgedichten, 1770-1830 1-33

Abstract (EN)
‘His song would be of trade, and of trade he sang’. Dutch poems on trade 1770-1830.In the seventeenth-century Dutch Republic, the mercantile nation par excellence, poets often devoted some laudatory stanzas to trade and commerce, to Amsterdam as ‘the merchants’ capital’ or to individual merchants and their virtues. It is only from the second half of the eighteenth century onwards, however, that we find poems that take trade and commerce as their central theme. This article analyses around twelve of these poems dating from the last decades of the eighteenth and the first decades of the nineteenth century. These sometimes exceptionally long works sing the praise of trade as a historical phenomenon, dwelling on developments from primordial times up to their own age. In the nineteenth-century poems, trade even develops into a divine power, the primum movens and driving force in the history of human civilization. Two central themes of Enlightenment economics gain prominence here: the Universal Economy Doctrine and the idea of doux commerce. While it has often been stated that the Dutch were hardly interested in economics before the end of the nineteenth century, these poems demonstrate that, whereas purely academic discourse on economy was scarce indeed, contemporary international ideas on economy were in fact widespread in the Netherlands. In a popularized and poetic guise they could count on the lively interest of many.
Jolanda van der LeeSodoms zondaar of schepsel Gods? Negentiende-eeuwse homoseksuelen over hun relatie met God 34-53

Abstract (EN)
Sinner of Sodom or Gods creature? Nineteenth-century homosexuals about their relationship with God.In the nineteenth century psychiatrists established the existence of the homosexual identity and developed theories about its causes and characteristics. An important source of information they used were autobiographies of so called urnings (homosexuals). Given the fact that today most Christians accept the existence of the homosexual identity, it seems that over time the developed medical discourse on homosexuality has been given a place within the discourse of the Christian faith. This article focuses on the first phase of this ‘processing’ of the medical discourse. By analyzing five autobiographies of nineteenth century urnings that were published in the Netherlands I discuss how the authors coped with the combination of their homosexual identity and their religion. All authors supply evidence of regarding themselves as innate homosexuals and, as such, as a creature of God. They show different views about the goal He has with their creation – an unknown one, a special favor or a punishment – but they are all convinced that they are no sinner in His eyes, even if they are sexually active. However, the biblical sin of Sodomy – anal penetration – is assessed negatively.
Toos StrengLeest, maar leest met mate. Over de houding tegenover het lezen in de eerste decennia van de negentiende eeuw 54-76

Abstract (EN)
Read, but read in moderation. Opinions on reading in the first half of the nineteenth century.According to Marita Mathijsen before 1850 a reading revolution in The Netherlands was hold off because the spiritual authorities (pastors and priests) who controlled the public opinion turned against the enlightened liberal belief that literature, like all forms of knowledge, would lead to a better world. Only since the thirties reading would no longer be generally contested but tolerated (gedoogd). However, the term ‘gedogen’ (acquiescence) is only appropriate when speaking of an apparently ineradicable evil that was secretly tolerated. Until 1825 this was only the standard view in Catholic circles. Outside these circles reading was considered a legitimate human need, which was put at the disposal of the attainment of domestic happiness. With the notable exception of the young Da Costa and other orthodox Protestants in the twenties the Protestant public opinion in the first decades of the nineteenth century did not condemn reading in general. The watchword was not: Thou shalt not read, but: Read, but read in moderation. The ministers took their educational role seriously and fought against thoughtless reading, overmuch reading and the reading of the wrong books. The reading revolution hold off, but not for ideological reasons. The need existed, but the financial means lacked to fulfill the needs.
Boekzaal der geleerde wereld 77-80

  • Marjan van Heteren, Merel van den Nieuwenhof (red.), Kruseman. Kunstbroeders uit de romantiek. Zwolle: Waanders, 2014. (Wessel Krul)
  • Bert Vreeken e.a., Abraham en Louisa Willet-Holthuysen. Amsterdamse verzamelaars in de 19e eeuw. Amsterdam: Museum Willet-Holthuysen/Zwolle: Waanders, 2015. (Lieske Tibbe)
De Negentiende Eeuw, 2015, nr. 3-4

De Negentiende Eeuw 39 (2015) 3-4: ‘Wel en onwel. Het lichaam in de negentiende eeuw’

Jelle ZondagEen weerbaar volk. C.M.J. Muller Massis, het lichaam en de sport aan het eind van de negentiende eeuw 190-191

Abstract (EN)
A resilient nation. C.M.J. Muller Massis, the body and sports at the end of the
nineteenth century.
At the end of the nineteenth century, physical exercise was regarded as a major instrument to regenerate the Dutch nation. C.M.J. Muller Massis, a journalist and central figure in the Dutch cycling world, was one of the main propagators of this idea. According to Massis, sports had to muscle and harden the bodies of the Dutch – masculine – youth, build their character and turn them into resilient and self-reliant young men. These able-bodied young men became the focal point for ideas about military defensibility, strengthening of the colonial empire, promoting industry and trade and battling the ‘struggle for life’.
Marjan SterckxOff the record. Een vroeg vrouwelijk naakt van Franse makelij op een Nederlandse
tentoonstelling: Marie-Louise Lefèvre-Deumiers Diana in Den Haag in 1866 209-229

Abstract (EN)
Off the record. An early female nude by a French sculptor in a Dutch exhibition: Marie-Louise Lefèvre-Deumier’s Diana in The Hague in 1866.This article deals with the case of an early female (semi)nude by a French sculptress, shown exceptionally early at a Dutch exhibition: the Living Masters in The Hague in 1866, even if it was not mentioned in the catalogue. The artist, Marie-Louise Lefèvre-Deumier, then temporarily lived in The Hague but was from Paris, where it was then more customary to exhibit nudes, except for women. The discussed case concerns such an exception, particularly for the Netherlands, where it was not yet evident in 1866 to exhibit nudity, let alone by a woman. Yet it seems that little or no fuss was made when Lefèvre-Deumier showed her Diana in The Hague. In this text, explanations are sought for both its early presentation, and the lack of controversy it aroused. That fact that it only concerned a small statuette, that conformed to the classical sculpture tradition, that it was not mentioned in the catalogue, and that the sculptress had a respectable reputation, might all have played a role. Moreover, judging from two (other) known semi-nude marble statues from the same sculptor (Glycera and Morning Star), it is argued that the statuette shown in The Hague, representing the chaste Diana, must have held an acceptable balance between prudery and sensuality. This in contrast to Edouards Manet’s contemporary (Olympia), thus showing the double moral as concerned to sexuality in the arts of the 1860’s, in Paris as well as the Netherlands.
Leonieke Vermeer‘Papa is weder ongesteld’. Ziektebeleving in negentiende-eeuwse egodocumenten 230-251

Abstract (EN)
‘Dad is unwell again’. Illness experiences in nineteenth century self-narratives.It takes two to make a medical encounter – the sick person as well as the doctor, as historian Roy Porter rightly stated. This contribution investigates the perspective of the sick person. It shows how people in the Netherlands coped with illness in the nineteenth century. Their experiences can be traced in ‘egodocuments’, autobiographical texts such as diaries and illness narratives. These sources have hitherto barely been used to study the Dutch medical history ‘from below’. This exploratory article shows that the range of diseases is much broader than the traditional sources ‘from above’ suggest. Above that, the egodocuments reveal a negotiation of several discourses, such as religion and medicine. Furthermore it appears that an important role of the doctor in the medical encounter was to lend mental support. Finally the question is answered why people wrote about their illness experiences. Recent research on self-narratives from the nineteenth century has paid increasing attention to their function with regard to controlling time. However, selfnarratives on illness show a different view, because they often contain emotions, reflection and introspection.
Mary KemperinkNederlandse literaire verbeelding van oosterse homoseksualiteit in relatie tot het westerse wetenschappelijke discours 252-270

Abstract (EN)
Dutch literary representation of Oriental homosexuality in relation to the
Western scientific discourse.
This article deals with representation of masculine homosexuality in relation to the Orient, in Dutch literary texts from around 1900. It focuses on two pivotal questions. First, how does this representation relate to the scientific (medical and ethnological) discourse from around 1900? Second, how does this representation relate to the concept ‘orientalism’ of Edward Said? The representation of homosexuality clearly shows a change in vision on homosexuality. The interest in the homosexual act as such shifted towards the focus on a concept of homosexual identity. Parallel to this development homosexuality is not exclusively regarded anymore as a feature that belongs to the ‘otherness’ of the Orient. Around 1900 it is looked upon as a human phenomenon that all races and all nations in principle have in common. Before ca. 1885 representation of homosexuality in relation to the Orient fits in completely with the orientalism concept of Said; towards the end of the nineteenth it does to a far lesser extent.
Willemijn RubergMenstruatie voor het gerecht. Het vrouwelijke lichaam, brandstichting en de forensische geneeskunde in de negentiende eeuw 272-286

Abstract (EN)
Menstruation in court. The female body, arson and forensic medicine in the nineteenth century.In the nineteenth century, doctors examined young girls accused of arson, identifying a relationship between a blocked menstruation and pyromania or insanity. This expert opinion could be used to exonerate the accused and to declare them unaccountable so as to avoid the death penalty. This article analyses the way the relationship between menstruation and pyromania was researched and concludes menstruation functioned as ‘empty signifier’, a catch-all term. A focus on forensic practices shows the difficulty of defining menstruation, pyromania and the correspondence between these two concepts.
Tinne Claes en Veronique DeblonVan panoramisch naar preventief. Populariserende anatomische musea in de Lage Landen (1850-1880) 287-306

Abstract (EN)
From panorama to prevention. Popular anatomical museums in the Low Countries (1850-1880).Recent research on nineteenth-century popular anatomical museums has focused on their preventive and moralizing ideals. In the Low Countries, however, the anatomical museum had a different meaning in the 1850s. Dr. Joseph Kahn and his contemporaries portrayed their collections as a panoramic view of creation. The display of – zoological, ethnological and pathological – bodily differences represented the wealth of nature. In this article, we argue that the pathological body only became the core of the anatomical museum in the 1860s. The admission of the lower classes and the emergence of the hygiene movement led to a growing interest in the preventive and moralizing potential of the pathological body.
Alex van StipriaanHet slaafgemaakte lichaam. Paradox van het Surinaams apartheidssysteem in de negentiende eeuw 307-322

Abstract (EN)
The enslaved body. [Paradox of the Surinam system of apartheid in the nineteenth century].This contribution is about slavery in the Dutch colony of Suriname (Dutch Guyana) and focuses on the body as the ultimate example of the paradoxes of slavery as a system of apartheid. On the one hand the enslaved were by law considered to be no more than movable property, like horses or cattle. On the other hand the enslaved were supposed to perform like only human beings could. This is illustrated by a number of bodily dimensions. Black nakedness was a much observed, and sometimes cherished phenomenon, as opposed to completely covered white bodies, or like the normality of naked animals. Particularly the black female body was continually subject to white male lust, even though formally it was forbidden and enslaved were considered to be more animal like than human. The paradox of ethnic mixing was that its outcome, the coloured body, was favoured by white, because of esthetical reasons, by black for reasons of social climbing, and at the same time both looked down upon the coloured population intensely. Furthermore, examples are given of the tortured as well as the resistant enslaved body. Eventually, when slavery was abolished in 1863, the enslaved black body turned out to have internalised a number of white elements as well as the other way around. The biggest paradox of all was that despite having made the enslaved body as the ultimate other, the white body could not do without it.
Boekzaal der geleerde wereld 323-327

  • De ijzeren eeuw. 13-delige documentaireserie over de negentiende eeuw. NTR: VPRO.
    Hans Goedkoop, Kees Zandvliet, De ijzeren eeuw. Het begin van het moderne Nederland. Zutphen:
    Walburg Pers, 2015. (Marita Mathijsen)
  • Freek Heijbroek en Erik Schmitz, George Hendrik Breitner in Amsterdam. Bussum: THOTH, 2014. (Lieske Tibbe)
  • Gert-Jan Johannes, Joris van Eijnatten en Piet Gerbrandy (samenstelling), De post van Bilderdijk.
    Een bundel beschouwingen over brieven voor Marinus van Hattum
    . Amstelveen: Eon Pers,
    2015. (Anna de Haas)
Signalement 328

  • Hugh Dunthorne en Michael Wintle (red.), The historical imagination in nineteenth-century Britain and the Low Countries. Leiden/Boston: Brill, 2013, deel 5 in de serie National Cultivation of Culture. (Jan Jaap Heij)
De Negentiende Eeuw 2015, nr. 2

De Negentiende Eeuw 39 (2015) 2

Tom WillaertMultatuli als schrijf- en spreekmachine. Over de vroege receptie van de fonograaf in de literatuur van de Lage Landen 97-117

Abstract (EN)
Multatuli as a writing and talking machine. On the early reception of the phonograph in the literature of the Low Countries.As late nineteenth-century culture saw itself transformed by the emergence of new media, celebrated Dutch writer Multatuli (1820-1887) too was radically reinventing himself. In 1877, he irrevocably shifted his activities from writing to public speaking. The formerly self-proclaimed ‘writing machine’ thus became a self-attested ‘talking machine’. Coincidentally, this metamorphosis took place at the time of his emotional encounter with an actual talking machine: Edison’s phonograph. Being the first device that could capture, store and replay sounds, this new medium posed a multi-pronged challenge to literature. International nineteenth-century literary discourse attests that the phonograph was for one thing perceived as relieving writers of one of their primary functions: to record the spoken word. For another, many authors were fascinated by the disembodied voices instated by the phonograph’s separation of sounds from their source. In this article, we explore how this double dynamic took hold of the Dutch realm of letters by analysing the correlations between Multatuli’s poetics and literary practices on the one hand and the functions of the phonograph on the other.
Tymen PeverelliKerken en kanonnen. Stedelijk verleden en historische genootschappen in Maastricht, 1853-1914 118-140

Abstract (EN)
Churches and cannons. Urban past and antiquarian societies in Maastricht, 1853-1914.Nineteenth-century Maastricht experienced what we might call a memory boom. This upsurge in historical interest was not a national or provincial affair, but was distinctly locally oriented. Central to this trend were two antiquarian societies, which were deeply imbedded in a network of amateur scholars. By analysing their antiquarian and historical writings, this article researches how the members of these societies cultivated the past of Maastricht. It shows how they evoked an urban selfimage based on the hand on a conception of the Early and High Middle Ages as the town’s golden age, and, on the other, on the remembrance of the sixteenth up to the eighteenth centuries as dramatic historical turning points. Their self-image was defined by its differentiation from other towns and nations, and by its integration into a larger regional or national whole. Thus, this research highlights the continuing relevance of urban identities for the elites of nineteenth-century Maastricht.
Pim den Dekker‘Weet, dat er niets indiscreeter is dan een andermans journaal te lezen’. De functies van negentiende-eeuwse jeugddagboeken 141-162

Abstract (EN)
‘Is there something more indiscreet than reading someone’s journal?’ The functions of the nineteenth-century youth diaries.In the nineteenth century, many children and adolescents kept a diary. In the Netherlands, studies about the diaries of children and adolescents are rare. This article investigates the functions served by such diaries, both implicit and explicit, by examining ten diaries with the hypotheses formulated in two studies: one study on adolescent diaries from nineteenth century France, and another on a Dutch child’s diary from the eighteenth century. This article will show that the diaries can serve multiple functions for their authors and that the primary function of a diary can change throughout its author’s writing process. A diary may be used for mnemonic reasons, to record the emotions of the author, or to help in his or her character development.
Frida van TilIn navolging van ‘de Schryfwyze van den beroemden Meiszner’. Adriaan Loosjes’ vaderlands-historische dialoog-romans nader bekeken 163-180

Abstract (EN)
In the footsteps of the ‘famous Meiszner’. Adriaan Loosjes’ national-historical dialogue novels scrutinized.Between 1790 and 1807 author, editor and bookseller Adriaan Loosjes Pz. wrote six so-called ‘dramatische voorstellingen’ or dialogue novels about people and topics of national and historical importance. Loosjes chose this genre, because in his opinion this was the best way to communicate his message of religious inequality and political intolerance. With the dialogue novel Loosjes followed in the footsteps of the German author August Gottlieb Meißner who wrote the novel Bianka Capello and also several other Germans who wrote in and about dialogues. Loosjes’ imitation of Meißner and the translations of a lot of other novels of the German author is also an example of the growing interest in Germany and its literature, especially around 1800.
Boekzaal der geleerde wereld 181-184

  • Ton Honing, Robert Nolet en Martin Kers, Koninklijke wachtkamers. Een reis door de tijd. Royal waiting rooms. A journey through time. Groningen: Rage BV, 2013, in opdracht van NS Stations. (Marlite Halbertsma)
  • Bert Altena, Machinist en wereldverbeteraar. Het leven van A.J. Lansen, 1847-1931. Hilversum: Uitgeverij Verloren, 2014. (Lieske Tibbe)
  • Rick Honings en Olf Praamstra (red.), Ellendige levens. Nederlandse schrijvers in de negentiende eeuw. Hilversum: Uitgeverij Verloren, 2013. (Gert-Jan Johannes)