Lotte JensenDe opmars van Disaster Studies. Nieuwe perspectieven in het rampenonderzoek 147-164
Ruben RosDe opkomst van de ‘nationale ramp’. Een begripsgeschiedenis 165-187
The rise of the ‘national disaster’. A conceptual history.In the early nineteenth century the concept of ‘national disaster’ makes its appearance in Dutch periodicals, marking a rich variety of events, developments and ideas as disastrous for the wellbeing and integrity of the nation. This article shows how the concept of ‘national disaster’ is rooted in changes in the meaning and use of the concept of ‘disaster’. Guided by a computational analysis of Dutch newspaper discourse in the period between 1750 and 1850, the article demonstrates how the concept of ‘disaster’ was increasingly used in political discourse from the early nineteenth century onwards. The politicization of the concept of disaster, and its application to ideas about the public sphere and national territory led to the emergence of the ‘national disaster’.
Erica BoersmaBovenregionale solidariteit bij stads- en dorpsrampen in de achttiende-eeuwse Republiek der Verenigde Nederlanden. Het noodhulpbeleid van de hogere overheden 187-206
Super-regional solidarity in city and village disasters in the eighteenth-century Dutch Republic.The historiography of disasters is quite unanimous that the higher authorities in the Dutch Republic had little interest in alleviating local distress. The explanation for this lack of supra-regional solidarity is usually found in the institutional inability of the administratively fragmented Dutch Republic: only after the emergence of a central (nation)state in 1795 did disaster relief become modernized. Most disaster research concerned floods; this article examines city and village disasters. Analysing the policies of the higher authorities on the structural aid to victims, it will show that supra-regional solidarity and aid was not only possible but also frequent in the Dutch Republic. Based on urban disaster policies, this article will suggest some alternative explanations for the lack of supra-regional support in flood disasters.
Arti PonsenHuiselijke relieken. De Leidse buskruitramp (1807) in openbare en particuliere collecties 207-233
Homely relics. The Leiden gunpowder disaster (1807) in public and private collections.On January 12, 1807 part of Leiden’s inner city was devastated by the explosion of an inland boat loaded with gunpowder. About 160 people – mostly women and children – were killed, some 2000 injured. Survivors kept mementoes of their loved ones and of the event itself. Over time, many of these ‘secular relics’ were acquired by museums, others are still with the heirs of their original owners. The article discusses how the Dutch word ‘relic’ lost its religious connotation and how the private provenance of objects relating to the gunpowder disaster differs from the public veneration for national relics of Dutch history and art. The term ‘homely relics’ is proposed as a new subcategory of the ‘secular relics’ defined by Wim Vroom in 1997.
Marita MathijsenTen voordeele van …. Liefdadigheidsuitgaven in de negentiende eeuw 234-258
In favor of…. Charity publications in the nineteenth century.In Dutch history, charity publications were almost entirely a 19th century phenomenon. In this article I provide an overview of this phenomenon. The first publication that I have been able to trace is from 1784, the most recent one from 1930. However there are some predecessors of charity publications. The few studies that have been published about charity literature emphasize their national message. Occasions for charity publications were many and varied. Even so, flood disasters prevail. The most varied genres could be employed for the purpose: theater plays, poetry, sermons, essays, etc. However, poems are in the majority, and it is they in the first place that become the object of criticism. From midcentury onward critical comments become ever fiercer, in particular concerning their quantity and their countless platitudes. What makes the phenomenon typically nineteenth century is the shared mentality behind it. To help out in the case of disasters or poverty was not yet a public matter but rested with privately undertaken initiatives.
Jan Wim BuismanOnweer. Een ramp, een straf of een subliem schouwspel? 259-269
Thunderstorms. A disaster, a dvine punishment, or a sublime spectacle?.Thunderstorms often had disastrous consequences in former times, especially when gun powder magazines were struck. After the invention and implementation of Franklin’s lightning rod, the interpretation of these disasters as divine punishments seemed less obvious. Technology and science changed relations between the concepts of God, nature, and man. Very generally speaking, a religion of fear gave way to a religion of love. Nature was considered less a menace than a friend, a shift subtly foreshadowing the Romantic period. Put in more safe life conditions, man tended to hold more optimistic views of himself and dared to play artistically even with dangerous, sublime subjects such as thunderstorms.
Lotte JensenLiederen als nieuwsbrenger en troostverschaffer. Branden, scheepsrampen en grote internationale catastrofes, 1755-1918 270-293
Singing about fires, shipwrecks and major international catastrophes between 1755 and 1918. Local, national and international solidarity.This article focuses on Dutch songs about three different kind of disasters in the period 1755-1918: fires (which occurred in Dutch villages and cities), ship wrecks (both in the Netherlands and abroad) and other foreign catastrophes, such as the earthquake on Martinique (1839) or the floods in Mexico (1888). This popular genre is an important source to understand how people coped with disasters in the past. They were not only used to spread the news, but also to make sense of the events by offering moral and religious lessons. This article investigates how these different types of disaster songs could shape a shared sense of community on the
local, national and international level. While songs about fires were often directed at the local community, ballads about shipwrecks appealed to the imagined Dutch community. Songs about big disasters in foreign places, sometimes aimed at raising international solidarity, but they were more often used to strengthen communal feelings at the national level.
Fons MeijerVorst in het vizier. Nationalisme en de verbeelding van de Oranjes na rampen in de negentiende eeuw 294-320
Looking at the monarch. Nationalism and the representation of Orange monarchs after disasters in the nineteenth century.The nineteenth-century Dutch monarchs from the House of Orange often played a proactive role in the aftermath of major catastrophes, such as storm surges, river floods and destructive explosions. Authors repeatedly praised their commitment afterwards and characterised them as symbols of the nation. In this article I
demonstrate that the discourse through which monarchs were celebrated should quintessentially be understood as manifestations of nationalism, that is: these discourses cultivated a national sense of unity and thus popularised a the notion of the Netherlands as a national community. As it turns out, authors commonly cultivated a conservative notion of national community, concentrated around conformist concepts such as unity, hierarchy and moderation.
Ron BrandEmpathie of sensatiezucht? De scheepsramp van de ‘Berlin’ in 1907 en de nasleep ervan 321-336
Empathy or sensationalism? The shipping disaster of the ‘Berlin’ in 1907 and its aftermath.In the early morning of February 21, 1907, during a fierce storm, the ferry ‘Berlin’ crashed on the pier of Hook van Holland. With 128 victims, it still is the largest maritime disaster off the Dutch coast in peacetime. Due to the enormous interest of the population, the media and the Dutch royal house, it became a major media disaster in Dutch history. How did that happen? The disaster occurred at a time when a new era was dawning by the dissemination of many new forms of media, such as film, photography and illustrated magazines. In addition, there was the special attention paid by Prince Hendrik, Queen Wilhelmina’s husband. His arrival in Hook van Holland was unprecedented, because he not only came to watch the rescue attempts, but also actively contributed to it. That made the disaster one with two faces; on the one hand, that of the lower class with the population of Hook of Holland and the brave saviors and, on the other hand, one of the upper class because of the attention paid to Prince Hendrik. All this ensured that the disaster was experienced intensely, more intensely than before.
Hans BeelenBezet door het ijs. De literaire verwerking van onfortuinlijke reizen ter walvisvangst in het rampjaar 1777/78 337-357
Beset by ice. The Dutch literary resonance of unfortunate whaling voyages in the catastrophic year 1777/78.The Greenland whaling catastrophe of the year 1777 resulted in seventeen voyage descriptions, written in five languages over a period of 40 years. Travelogues in Dutch, German and Danish reflect the international character of the eighteenth-century whaling trade. As for the Dutch literary setting, there appear to be great differences in style and processing between printed journals written by surviving seamen and descriptions written by or in collaboration with more or less professional authors.
Alicia Schrikker en Sander TetterooDe koloniale ruimte herbezien. De politiek-culturele beleving van Indonesische natuurrampen in de 19e en vroege 20e eeuw oplossen 358-381
The colonial space revisited. The cultural and political experience of Indonesian natural disasters in the nineteenth and early twentieth century.This contribution analyses the colonial space that encompassed The Netherlands and Indonesia through the lens of historical disasters. In the past as much as in the present, Indonesia’s geophysical circumstances made the region vulnerable to volcanic eruptions, earthquakes and tsunami’s. During the nineteenth and early twentieth century such disasters confronted its victims, the other inhabitants of the archipelago and Dutch authorities with considerable challenges. Organizing relief and reconstructing the affected places and societies, prompted societal and governmental responses in colonial Indonesia as well as in The Netherlands. This article centres around two case studies: the eruption of Mount Awu on Sangihe Besar in 1856, and the earthquake that struck West Sumatra in 1926. We show that cultural and political interpretations of these disasters varied considerably between Dutch and Indonesian actors. By building on new insights from the fields of New Imperial History and Disaster Studies, we understand these divergences as the results of the differences in interests, worldviews and political realities faced by those who engaged with disasters in the Netherlands East Indies.
On the one hand, Dutch actors tended to frame disasters as joint experiences that bound together motherland and its colony through charity and aid in a single humanitarian space. Yet their decidedly colonial lens led the Dutch to view disasters mainly through their own interests in the archipelago, thereby obscuring
the multi-layered nature of local disaster responses. We therefore foreground local disaster responses to expose the limits of colonial disaster interpretations and thereby emphasise the fragmented nature of the colonial space.
Judith Bosnak en Rick Honings‘Behoed ons arme volk voor de vulkaan-poëten’. De literaire verwerking van de Krakatau-ramp van 1883 in Nederland en Indonesië 382
‘Save our poor people from the vulcano poets’. The literary reception of the Krakatoa disaster of 1883 in the Netherlands and Indonesia.On August 27, 1883, the volcano Krakatau in the Dutch East Indies erupted and collapsed, causing the deaths of tens of thousands, mainly as a result of devastating tsunamis. The Krakatau eruption was one of the first disasters to take place beyond the Dutch boundaries that received so much attention in the Netherlands. Because the Indies were a Dutch colony, a response of the motherland was rather logical. In many places, charity activities were organized to raise money for the victims. This article focuses on the Dutch and Indonesian literary reactions on the Krakatau disaster. For this purpose, two scholars work together: one
specialized in Dutch Literary Studies and the other one in Indonesian Languages and Cultures. In the first part of the article several Dutch charity publications are analysed; the second part focuses on Indonesian sources (in Javanese and Malay). How and to what extend did the reactions in the Netherlands and Indonesia differ?
Tom Sintobin en Leonieke VermeerOver universitaire culturen, toen en nu 2-17
Jaap GraveJohannes Franck. Een carrière in de marge 18-35
Johannes Franck. A career in the margins.Johannes Franck (1854-1914) was the first professor extraordinarius (1886) and in 1912 a professor of Dutch and Low German in the German empire. In this article I describe his career largely until 1886 by embedding him within the scientific community of his time. Subsequently, I show how anti-Semitism prevented him from becoming a professor of German studies and discuss the policy of appointments in Prussia. To conclude, I argue that these aspects and the difference in scientific cultures between the Netherlands and the German Empire was partly responsible for the fact that he had a marginal position in between two scientific communities.
Christiaan EngbertsEen taalkundige als internationaal ondernemer. M.J. de Goeje en de Annalen van al-Tabari (1872-1901) 36-54
A linguist as international entrepreneur. M. J. de Goeje and the Annals of al-Tabari.Modern-day scientists and humanities scholars are often expected to possess personality traits, skills, and virtues typically associated with entrepreneurs. These include (but are not limited to) a willingness to take risks, the ability to lead a diverse team of collaborators, and a flexible mindset. The roots of the ideal of the entrepreneurial scholar, however, are older. In this article, I investigate the realization of Michael Jan de Goeje’s al-Tabari edition in the last decades of the nineteenth century. To finance this ambitious endeavour and to successfully gather and manage a team of scholarly and non-scholarly collaborators, De Goeje needed to possess all the traits, skills, and virtues mentioned above. This case study demonstrates how an entrepreneurial spirit could be an asset for ambitious nineteenth-century scholars. At the same time, it illustrates one of the ways in which seemingly modern ideals of scholarship build on existing ones.
Ruben Mantels‘Ik leef hard en dubbel’. Het academisch leven van Paul Fredericq omstreeks 1900 55-69
‘To live a double life’. The academic life of Paul Fredericq around 1900.In this article I analyse the diary of the historian Paul Fredericq following the concept of ‘academic life’, a term coined by Johan Huizinga and further explored by Klaas van Berkel. It calls for the study of the university that goes beyond the institutional, perceiving the university as a living community with multiple interactions with society. Personal documents such as the diary of Fredericq prove to be excellent sources to this informal, anthropological view on the university. The diary reveals how the ‘personal’ life and the ‘university’ life of Fredericq intertwined and how his research and teaching was mixed up with engagements in the Flemish Movement, liberal politics and cultural world. In his diary he spoke about a double life, namely this combination of being a scientist and being a public figure. To conclude, this article discusses Fredericq as a case of the responses and concerns of universities around 1900 to the growing extra-curricular activities of the academic community.
Petra van Langen‘Er zijn voor dit vak in Nederland geen maatschappelijke vooruitzichten’. Muziekwetenschap in Utrecht, 1930-1940 70-87
‘There are no societal prospects for this study in the Netherlands’. Musicology in Utrecht, 1930-1940.Musicology became a fully-fledged academic study in the Netherlands in 1930 when both the Chair in Musicology and the Institute for Music History were founded at Utrecht University. Using sources such as archives, newspapers, personal memories of old studies in letters, and a talk on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the institute, this article describes the history of musicology Utrecht, its curriculum and what the first professor in musicology Albert Smijers expected of his students in the first decade of the institute’s existence.
Jamilla NotebaardDe kunst van het geprojecteerde beeld. De projectielantaarn als didactisch instrument in de kunsthistorische lessen van Willem Vogelsang (1875-1954) 88-107
The art of the projected image. The optical lantern as a didactic instrument in the Art History lectures of Willem
Vogelsang (1875-1954).The optical lantern was the central medium through which Art History professor Willem Vogelsang (1875-1954) taught his students ‘how to see’. As the first ordinarius in Art History in the Netherlands, Vogelsang focused on creating the right educational setting to turn his students into professional art historians. In his lectures the optical lantern and its projected images functioned as a didactic instrument to make his students (visually) understand compositional and stylistic differences and similarities within and between artworks. The lantern allowed Vogelsang to visually open up the world of art history to a whole new generation of art historians.
Dirk AlkemadePak van SjaalmanPatriots oorlogstoerisme. Het reisverslag van Jan van Vleuten naar de frontsteden Utrecht en
Woerden in de zomer van 1787 108-120
Boekzaal der geleerde wereld 121-143
- Pieter Huistra, Bouwmeesters, zedenmeesters. Geschiedbeoefening in Nederland tussen 1830 en 1870. Nijmegen: Vantilt, 2019. (Christiaan Engberts)
- Beatrice de Graaf, Tegen de terreur. Hoe Europa veilig werd na Napoleon. Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2018. Christine Haynes, Our friends the enemies: The occupation of France after Napoleon. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2018. (Matthijs Lok)
- Laurien Hansma, Oranjedriften. Orangisme in de Nederlandse politieke cultuur, 1780-1913. Hilversum: Verloren, 2019. (Lauren Lauret)
- Xosé M. Nuñez Seixas en Eric Storm, red., Regionalism and modern Europe. Identity construction and movements from 1890 to the present day. Londen: Bloomsbury, 2019. (Marguérite Corporaal)
- Leo van Bergen, Pro Patria et Patienti. De Nederlandse militaire geneeskunde 1795-1950. Nijmegen: Vantilt, 2019. (Tom Duurland)
- Len de Klerk, Frédéric en Antoine Plate. Rotterdamse kooplieden, reders en bestuurders, 1802-1927. Hilversum: Verloren, 2019. (Ben de Pater)
- Ron Dirven, Monique Rakhorst en Helma van der Horst, De schilders van Dongen; Ulbe Anema, Jeroen Kapelle en Dick van Veelen, De schilders van de Veluwezoom; Annemiek Rens, Barbizon van het Noorden. De ontdekking van het Drentse landschap, 1850-1950. Zwolle: WBOOKS, 2019. (Wiepke Loos)
Rick Honings‘Der keerlen God’ op het toneel. Willem Bilderdijks treurspel Floris de Vijfde (1808) 298-323
The ‘God of the Peasants’ on stage. Willem Bilderdijk’s tragedy Floris de Vijfde (1808).This article focuses on Willem Bilderdijk’s play Floris de Vijfde (Floris V), which he wrote in 1808 for King Louis Napoleon. This play is studied form different perspectives in order to get a complete picture of the content, context, function and reception of this work. It offers new biographical information on Bilderdijk’s life in the context of the Kingdom of Holland and focuses on Bilderdijk’s ideas on theatre in relation to Floris de Vijfde and on his ideas about national history. Furthermore, attention is paid to the political context in which the piece was written and to the political function that it fulfilled. Finally, this article presents an extensive overview of the reception and nachleben of the play in the second half of the nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth century.
Ron de JongHooggespannen verwachtingen. Verkiezingen en de grondwetsherziening van 1848 324-337
Great expectations. Elections and the consitutional reform of 1848.This article explores the causes of the low turnout at the Dutch elections in the years following the constitutional reform of 1848. The liberal reformers had hoped for an increased participation of Dutch voters after the introduction of direct suffrage, but were soon to be disappointed when after a promising start, the turnout dropped well below fifty percent. Drawing on Pierre Rosanvallon’s notions on political citizenship, this article tries to explain the low turnout.
Jan Drentje en Remieg AertsDiscussie 336-350
- Biografie of mythologie? Een repliek (Remieg Aerts)
- Thorbeckes wil en de wil van de geschiedenis (Jan Drentje)
Kurt BertelsPak van SjaalmanGevonden: ’s werelds eerste saxofoonconcerto 351-359
Boekzaal der geleerde wereld 360-368
- Nel de Mûelenaere, Belgen, zijt gij ten strijde gereed? Militarising in een neutrale natie, 1890-1914. Leuven: Universitaire Pers Leuven, 2019. (Samuël Kruizinga)
- Evelien Jonckheere, Aandacht! Aandacht! Aandacht en verstrooiing in het Gentse Grand Théâtre, Café-concert en Variététheater,
1880-1914. Leuven University Press: Leuven, 2017. (Veerle Driessen)
- Henk te Velde en Maartje Janse, red., Organizing democracy. Reflections on the rise of political organization in the nineteenth century. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017. (Adriejan van Veen)
- Angelie Sens, De kolonieman. Johannes van den Bosch (1780-1844). Volksverheffer in naam van de koning. Amsterdam: Uitgeverij Balans, 2019. (Rowin Jansen)
Van de redactieMigratie en identiteit. Ter inleiding 186-189
Anna RademakersJacobus Josephus Eeckhout. Wederwaardigheden van een Belgische schilder in Den Haag (1831-1844) 190-210
Jacobus Josephus Eeckhout. A Belgian painter’s times in The Hague (1831-1844).In 1831, shortly after the outbreak of the Belgian Revolution, the Belgian painter Jacob Joseph Eeckhout moved from Brussels to The Hague. As a supporter of King Willem I, he no longer felt at ease in his homeland. Eeckhout remained in the Netherlands until 1843 and played an important role in the cultural life of The Hague. This article analyzes the The Hague episode in Eeckhout’s life in the light of the political developments of that time. To what extent did notions of nationality and national identity play a role in his artistic views and career?
Gertjan BroekEmigranten rond het Achterhuis van Anne Frank 211-226
Migrants around Anne Frank’s Achterhuis.The story of Anne Frank, her family and her companions, hiding from persecution by the Nazi regime, is a well-known and – at a first glance – very Dutch one. The main divide between those in hiding and their helpers was that between being Jewish and being non-Jewish, which in those precarious times was of course the essential ‘divide’ imposed on the people of occupied Europe. But a closer look at the group of people around Anne seen from the perspective of migration and (national) identity produces different dividing lines and insights. Their life stories, converging in that one Amsterdam warehouse, reflect many aspects of early twentieth-century European history.
Caroline DrieënhuizenLeven(s) met objecten. De Europese elite van koloniaal Indonesië, haar verzamelingen en identificatie rond 1900 227-248
Living with objects. The European elite of colonial Indonesia, its collections and identification around
1900.Many upper-class migrants from, and to, Dutch colonial Indonesia – often travelling back and forth – collected objects. By analysing the practice of collecting and the meaning these people ascribed to those artefacts, I will provide insight into the way personal, and eventually even collective, identities were formed. The manner in which objects were collected and displayed not only reflected the self-image of their owners in colonial and Dutch society, but may also have been active influences in those processes of (self)identification. The collection of objects, and the meaning ascribed to them, reflected the unequal power relations within colonial society, and simultaneously, was possible a strategy for marginalised people (such as European women) to liberate themselves from social inequality.
Marguérite Corporaal en Tom Sintobin‘Gemeen Volk’. Zigeuners in Europese streekliteratuur 249-285
‘Common People’. Gypsies in European regional fiction.Regional fiction is a genre in which the tension between local and national cultures tends to play an important role. This article explores the representation of a category of characters that seems to escape that binary opposition: gipsies. More specifically, it analyzes six case studies from regional literature produced in Ireland and the Low Countries to find out whether we can speak of a transnational trope. Although the representation of gipsies in the case studies are different in several respects, there are also striking similarities. The most important one is that the gipsies are not just mere outsiders posing a threat to the regional community. Rather, paradoxically, they constitute a model for that local community regarding the preservation and regeneration of its own cultural values.
Boekzaal der geleerde wereld 286-296
- Eveline Koolhaas-Grosfeld en Marij Leenders, Tussen politiek en publiek. Politieke prenten uit een opstandige tijd 1880-1919. Schiedam: Scriptum, 2019. (Paul Reef)
- Fleur de Beaufort en Patrick van Schie, De liberale strijd voor vrouwenkiesrecht. Amsterdam: Boom, 2019. Mineke Bosch, Strijd! De vrouwenkiesrechtbeweging in Nederland, 1882-1922. Hilversum: Verloren, 2019. (Ulla Jansz)
- Martin P. Weiss, Showcasing science. A history of Teylers Museum in the nineteenth century. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2019. (Lieske Tibbe)